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Emerging Chlamydia psittaci infections in chickens and examination of transmission to humans

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Abstract
Chlamydia psittaci and atypical Chlamydiaceae infections are (re)-emerging in chickens. We therefore examined the prevalence of C. psittaci, atypical Chlamydiaceae and their zoonotic transmission on 19 Belgian chicken farms. Atypical Chlamydiaceae were not detected in chickens but 18 out of 19 farms were positive for C. psittaci by culture and PCR. C. psittaci ompA genotypes A and D were discovered. None of the examined humans (n = 31) was infected with atypical Chlamydiaceae, but 29 (93.5%) of them were positive for C. psittaci by culture and PCR. Genotypes A, D and a mixed infection with genotypes C and D were found. Humans (n = 2) working at the C. psittaci-negative farm never had respiratory complaints, while 25 out of 29 positive farmers (86.2%) reported yearly medical complaints potentially related to psittacosis. Four of them currently experienced respiratory disease and one of them was being treated with antibiotics. Four farmers (12.5%) mentioned that they had pneumonia after starting to keep chickens. Occupational physicians should be aware of emerging Chlamydiaceae infections in chickens.
Keywords
ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY, CHLAMYDOPHILA-PSITTACI, RISK-ASSESSMENT, TURKEY FLOCKS, OUTBREAK, PREVALENCE, POULTRY, PNEUMONIAE, ORNITHOSIS, REAL-TIME PCR

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Chicago
Lagae, Stefanie, Isabelle Kalmar, Karine Laroucau, Fabienne Vorimore, and Daisy Vanrompay. 2014. “Emerging Chlamydia Psittaci Infections in Chickens and Examination of Transmission to Humans.” Journal of Medical Microbiology 63 (3): 399–407.
APA
Lagae, S., Kalmar, I., Laroucau, K., Vorimore, F., & Vanrompay, D. (2014). Emerging Chlamydia psittaci infections in chickens and examination of transmission to humans. JOURNAL OF MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY, 63(3), 399–407.
Vancouver
1.
Lagae S, Kalmar I, Laroucau K, Vorimore F, Vanrompay D. Emerging Chlamydia psittaci infections in chickens and examination of transmission to humans. JOURNAL OF MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY. 2014;63(3):399–407.
MLA
Lagae, Stefanie, Isabelle Kalmar, Karine Laroucau, et al. “Emerging Chlamydia Psittaci Infections in Chickens and Examination of Transmission to Humans.” JOURNAL OF MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY 63.3 (2014): 399–407. Print.
@article{4428068,
  abstract     = {Chlamydia psittaci and atypical Chlamydiaceae infections are (re)-emerging in chickens. We therefore examined the prevalence of C. psittaci, atypical Chlamydiaceae and their zoonotic transmission on 19 Belgian chicken farms. Atypical Chlamydiaceae were not detected in chickens but 18 out of 19 farms were positive for C. psittaci by culture and PCR. C. psittaci ompA genotypes A and D were discovered. None of the examined humans (n = 31) was infected with atypical Chlamydiaceae, but 29 (93.5\%) of them were positive for C. psittaci by culture and PCR. Genotypes A, D and a mixed infection with genotypes C and D were found. Humans (n = 2) working at the C. psittaci-negative farm never had respiratory complaints, while 25 out of 29 positive farmers (86.2\%) reported yearly medical complaints potentially related to psittacosis. Four of them currently experienced respiratory disease and one of them was being treated with antibiotics. Four farmers (12.5\%) mentioned that they had pneumonia after starting to keep chickens. Occupational physicians should be aware of emerging Chlamydiaceae infections in chickens.},
  author       = {Lagae, Stefanie and Kalmar, Isabelle and Laroucau, Karine and Vorimore, Fabienne and Vanrompay, Daisy},
  issn         = {0022-2615},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY},
  keyword      = {ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY,CHLAMYDOPHILA-PSITTACI,RISK-ASSESSMENT,TURKEY FLOCKS,OUTBREAK,PREVALENCE,POULTRY,PNEUMONIAE,ORNITHOSIS,REAL-TIME PCR},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {399--407},
  title        = {Emerging Chlamydia psittaci infections in chickens and examination of transmission to humans},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.064675-0},
  volume       = {63},
  year         = {2014},
}

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