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FELINE CKD: diagnosis, staging and screening: what is recommended?

Dominique Paepe (UGent) and Sylvie Daminet (UGent)
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Abstract
Practical relevance: Feline chronic kidney disease (CKD) is frequently encountered by veterinarians. Timely diagnosis and staging may facilitate the initiation of adequate therapy and improve the prognosis for patients. Clinical challenges: Feline CKD is diagnosed based on the presence of compatible clinical signs and renal azotaemia, which implies that urinalysis (particularly urine specific gravity) is mandatory to confirm the diagnosis. Although the diagnosis of advanced feline CKD and associated complications is usually straightforward, based on complete blood and urine examination, all routine blood and urine tests have their limitations in detecting early CKD. Therefore, diagnosing early or non-azotaemic CKD is much more challenging. Although determination of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) would be ideal to identify early kidney dysfunction, practical limitations hamper its routine use in clinical practice. Patient group: CKD is typically a disease of aged cats, but may affect cats of all ages. Conclusive breed and sex predispositions for feline CKD are not reported. Audience: This review is directed at practising veterinarians and provides an overview of the required diagnostic tests, the classification system established by the International Renal Interest Society, and the importance of and possible techniques for early detection of CKD. Evidence base: Staging of cats with CKD is essential as it directs management and provides a prognostic guide. Given that diagnosis at early disease stages is associated with more prolonged survival times, simple, inexpensive and accurate methods for early CKD diagnosis are needed. Techniques currently under investigation include limited sampling strategies to estimate GFR, clearance marker cut-off concentrations to identify cats with low GFR, new indirect GFR markers and urinary biomarkers.
Keywords
CHRONIC KIDNEY-DISEASE, CHRONIC-RENAL-FAILURE, GLOMERULAR-FILTRATION-RATE, URINARY-TRACT-INFECTIONS, TO-CREATININE RATIO, SERUM CYSTATIN-C, RETINOL-BINDING-PROTEIN, SYSTOLIC BLOOD-PRESSURE, SYSTEMIC HYPERTENSION, PLASMA-CLEARANCE

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MLA
Paepe, Dominique, and Sylvie Daminet. “FELINE CKD: Diagnosis, Staging and Screening: What Is Recommended?” JOURNAL OF FELINE MEDICINE AND SURGERY 15.S1 (2013): 15–27. Print.
APA
Paepe, Dominique, & Daminet, S. (2013). FELINE CKD: diagnosis, staging and screening: what is recommended? JOURNAL OF FELINE MEDICINE AND SURGERY, 15(S1), 15–27.
Chicago author-date
Paepe, Dominique, and Sylvie Daminet. 2013. “FELINE CKD: Diagnosis, Staging and Screening: What Is Recommended?” Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery 15 (S1): 15–27.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Paepe, Dominique, and Sylvie Daminet. 2013. “FELINE CKD: Diagnosis, Staging and Screening: What Is Recommended?” Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery 15 (S1): 15–27.
Vancouver
1.
Paepe D, Daminet S. FELINE CKD: diagnosis, staging and screening: what is recommended? JOURNAL OF FELINE MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 2013;15(S1):15–27.
IEEE
[1]
D. Paepe and S. Daminet, “FELINE CKD: diagnosis, staging and screening: what is recommended?,” JOURNAL OF FELINE MEDICINE AND SURGERY, vol. 15, no. S1, pp. 15–27, 2013.
@article{4427890,
  abstract     = {Practical relevance: Feline chronic kidney disease (CKD) is frequently encountered by veterinarians. Timely diagnosis and staging may facilitate the initiation of adequate therapy and improve the prognosis for patients.
Clinical challenges: Feline CKD is diagnosed based on the presence of compatible clinical signs and renal azotaemia, which implies that urinalysis (particularly urine specific gravity) is mandatory to confirm the diagnosis. Although the diagnosis of advanced feline CKD and associated complications is usually straightforward, based on complete blood and urine examination, all routine blood and urine tests have their limitations in detecting early CKD. Therefore, diagnosing early or non-azotaemic CKD is much more challenging. Although determination of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) would be ideal to identify early kidney dysfunction, practical limitations hamper its routine use in clinical practice.
Patient group: CKD is typically a disease of aged cats, but may affect cats of all ages. Conclusive breed and sex predispositions for feline CKD are not reported.
Audience: This review is directed at practising veterinarians and provides an overview of the required diagnostic tests, the classification system established by the International Renal Interest Society, and the importance of and possible techniques for early detection of CKD.
Evidence base: Staging of cats with CKD is essential as it directs management and provides a prognostic guide. Given that diagnosis at early disease stages is associated with more prolonged survival times, simple, inexpensive and accurate methods for early CKD diagnosis are needed. Techniques currently under investigation include limited sampling strategies to estimate GFR, clearance marker cut-off concentrations to identify cats with low GFR, new indirect GFR markers and urinary biomarkers.},
  author       = {Paepe, Dominique and Daminet, Sylvie},
  issn         = {1098-612X},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF FELINE MEDICINE AND SURGERY},
  keywords     = {CHRONIC KIDNEY-DISEASE,CHRONIC-RENAL-FAILURE,GLOMERULAR-FILTRATION-RATE,URINARY-TRACT-INFECTIONS,TO-CREATININE RATIO,SERUM CYSTATIN-C,RETINOL-BINDING-PROTEIN,SYSTOLIC BLOOD-PRESSURE,SYSTEMIC HYPERTENSION,PLASMA-CLEARANCE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {S1},
  pages        = {15--27},
  title        = {FELINE CKD: diagnosis, staging and screening: what is recommended?},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1098612X13495235},
  volume       = {15},
  year         = {2013},
}

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