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N-alkylamides : from plant to brain

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Abstract
Background: Plant N-alkylamides (NAAs) are bio-active compounds with a broad functional spectrum. In order to reach their pharmacodynamic targets, they have to overcome several barriers of the body in the absorption phase. The permeability kinetics of spilanthol (a diene NAA) and pellitorine (a triene NAA) across these barriers (i.e. skin, oral/gut mucosa, blood-brain barrier) were investigated. Methods: The skin and oral mucosa permeability were investigated using human skin and pig mucosa in an ex vivo in vitro Franz diffusion cell set-up. The gut absorption characteristics were examined using the in vitro Caco-2 cell monolayer test system. The initial blood-brain barrier transport kinetics were investigated in an in vivo mice model using multiple time regression and efflux experiments. Quantification of both NAAs was conducted using HPLC-UV and bio-analytical UPLC-MS methods. Results: We demonstrated that spilanthol and pellitorine are able to penetrate the skin after topical administration. It is likely that spilanthol and pellitorine can pass the endothelial gut as they easily pass the Caco-2 cells in the monolayer model. It has been shown that spilanthol also crosses the oral mucosa as well as the blood-brain barrier. Conclusion: It was demonstrated that NAAs pass various physiological barriers i.e. the skin, oral and gut mucosa, and after having reached the systemic circulation, also the blood-brain barrier. As such, NAAs are cosmenutriceuticals which can be active in the brain.
Keywords
pharmacokinetics, Plant N-alkylamides, mucosa/skin, blood-brain barrier (BBB), cosmenutriceuticals

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MLA
Veryser, Lieselotte, Evelien Wynendaele, Lien Taevernier, et al. “N-alkylamides : from Plant to Brain.” FUNCTIONAL FOODS IN HEALTH AND DISEASE 4.6 (2014): 264–275. Print.
APA
Veryser, L., Wynendaele, E., Taevernier, L., Verbeke, F., Joshi, T., Tatke, P., & De Spiegeleer, B. (2014). N-alkylamides : from plant to brain. FUNCTIONAL FOODS IN HEALTH AND DISEASE, 4(6), 264–275.
Chicago author-date
Veryser, Lieselotte, Evelien Wynendaele, Lien Taevernier, Frederick Verbeke, Tanmayee Joshi, Pratima Tatke, and Bart De Spiegeleer. 2014. “N-alkylamides : from Plant to Brain.” Functional Foods in Health and Disease 4 (6): 264–275.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Veryser, Lieselotte, Evelien Wynendaele, Lien Taevernier, Frederick Verbeke, Tanmayee Joshi, Pratima Tatke, and Bart De Spiegeleer. 2014. “N-alkylamides : from Plant to Brain.” Functional Foods in Health and Disease 4 (6): 264–275.
Vancouver
1.
Veryser L, Wynendaele E, Taevernier L, Verbeke F, Joshi T, Tatke P, et al. N-alkylamides : from plant to brain. FUNCTIONAL FOODS IN HEALTH AND DISEASE. 2014;4(6):264–75.
IEEE
[1]
L. Veryser et al., “N-alkylamides : from plant to brain,” FUNCTIONAL FOODS IN HEALTH AND DISEASE, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 264–275, 2014.
@article{4427317,
  abstract     = {Background: Plant N-alkylamides (NAAs) are bio-active compounds with a broad functional spectrum. In order to reach their pharmacodynamic targets, they have to overcome several barriers of the body in the absorption phase. The permeability kinetics of spilanthol (a diene NAA) and pellitorine (a triene NAA) across these barriers (i.e. skin, oral/gut mucosa, blood-brain barrier) were investigated.
Methods: The skin and oral mucosa permeability were investigated using human skin and pig mucosa in an ex vivo in vitro Franz diffusion cell set-up. The gut absorption characteristics were examined using the in vitro Caco-2 cell monolayer test system. The initial blood-brain barrier transport kinetics were investigated in an in vivo mice model using multiple time regression and efflux experiments. Quantification of both NAAs was conducted using HPLC-UV and bio-analytical UPLC-MS methods.
Results: We demonstrated that spilanthol and pellitorine are able to penetrate the skin after topical administration. It is likely that spilanthol and pellitorine can pass the endothelial gut as they easily pass the Caco-2 cells in the monolayer model. It has been shown that spilanthol also crosses the oral mucosa as well as the blood-brain barrier.
Conclusion: It was demonstrated that NAAs pass various physiological barriers i.e. the skin, oral and gut mucosa, and after having reached the systemic circulation, also the blood-brain barrier. As such, NAAs are cosmenutriceuticals which can be active in the brain.},
  author       = {Veryser, Lieselotte and Wynendaele, Evelien and Taevernier, Lien and Verbeke, Frederick and Joshi, Tanmayee and Tatke, Pratima and De Spiegeleer, Bart},
  issn         = {2160-3855},
  journal      = {FUNCTIONAL FOODS IN HEALTH AND DISEASE},
  keywords     = {pharmacokinetics,Plant N-alkylamides,mucosa/skin,blood-brain barrier (BBB),cosmenutriceuticals},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {6},
  pages        = {264--275},
  title        = {N-alkylamides : from plant to brain},
  url          = {http://functionalfoodscenter.net/files/91193133.pdf},
  volume       = {4},
  year         = {2014},
}