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DigiPET: sub-millimeter spatial resolution small-animal PET imaging using thin monolithic scintillators

Samuel Espana Palomares, Radoslaw Marcinkowski UGent, Vincent Keereman, Stefaan Vandenberghe UGent and Roel Van Holen UGent (2014) PHYSICS IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY. 59(13). p.3405-3420
abstract
A new preclinical PET system based on dSiPMs, called DigiPET, is presented. The system is based on thin monolithic scintillation crystals and exhibits superior spatial resolution at low-cost compared to systems based on pixelated crystals. Current dedicated small-rodent PET scanners have a spatial resolution in the order of 1 mm. Most of them have a large footprint, requiring considerable laboratory space. For rodent brain imaging, a PET scanner with sub-millimeter resolution is desired. To achieve this, crystals with a pixel pitch down to 0.5 mm have been used. However, fine pixels are difficult to produce and will render systems expensive. In this work, we present the first results with a high-resolution preclinical PET scanner based on thin monolithic scintillators and a large solid angle. The design is dedicated to rat-brain imaging and therefore has a very compact geometry. Four detectors were placed in a square arrangement with a distance of 34.5 mm between two opposing detector modules, defining a field of view (FOV) of 32 × 32 × 32 mm3. Each detector consists of a thin monolithic LYSO crystal of 32 × 32 × 2 mm3 optically coupled to a digital silicon photomultiplier (dSiPM). Event positioning within each detector was obtained using the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method. To evaluate the system performance, we measured the energy resolution, coincidence resolving time (CRT), sensitivity and spatial resolution. The image quality was evaluated by acquiring a hot-rod phantom filled with 18F-FDG and a rat head one hour after an 18F-FDG injection. The MLE yielded an average intrinsic spatial resolution on the detector of 0.54 mm FWHM. We obtained a CRT of 680 ps and an energy resolution of 18% FWHM at 511 keV. The sensitivity and spatial resolution obtained at the center of the FOV were 6.0 cps kBq-1 and 0.7 mm, respectively. In the reconstructed images of the hot-rod phantom, hot rods down to 0.7 mm can be discriminated. In conclusion, a compact PET scanner was built using dSiPM technology and thin monolithic LYSO crystals. Excellent spatial resolution and acceptable sensitivity were demonstrated. Promising results were also obtained in a hot-rod phantom and in rat-brain imaging.
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
year
type
journalArticle (original)
publication status
published
subject
keyword
CONTINUOUS LSO, PERFORMANCE EVALUATION, monolithic crystals, PET, SIPM, DESIGN, POSITION, MICROPET, DETECTOR, SCANNER, WIRE CHAMBER, dSiPM, BAF2 CRYSTALS
journal title
PHYSICS IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY
Phys. Med. Biol.
editor
Emma Chorlton, Richard Kelsall and Marric Stephens
volume
59
issue
13
pages
3405 - 3420
Web of Science type
Article
Web of Science id
000338424800013
JCR category
RADIOLOGY, NUCLEAR MEDICINE & MEDICAL IMAGING
JCR impact factor
2.761 (2014)
JCR rank
34/125 (2014)
JCR quartile
2 (2014)
ISSN
0031-9155
DOI
10.1088/0031-9155/59/13/3405
language
English
UGent publication?
yes
classification
A1
copyright statement
I have transferred the copyright for this publication to the publisher
id
4412055
handle
http://hdl.handle.net/1854/LU-4412055
date created
2014-06-11 15:20:20
date last changed
2016-12-19 15:43:02
@article{4412055,
  abstract     = {A new preclinical PET system based on dSiPMs, called DigiPET, is presented. The system is based on thin monolithic scintillation crystals and exhibits superior spatial resolution at low-cost compared to systems based on pixelated crystals. Current dedicated small-rodent PET scanners have a spatial resolution in the order of 1 mm. Most of them have a large footprint, requiring considerable laboratory space. For rodent brain imaging, a PET scanner with sub-millimeter resolution is desired. To achieve this, crystals with a pixel pitch down to 0.5 mm have been used. However, fine pixels are difficult to produce and will render systems expensive. In this work, we present the first results with a high-resolution preclinical PET scanner based on thin monolithic scintillators and a large solid angle. The design is dedicated to rat-brain imaging and therefore has a very compact geometry. Four detectors were placed in a square arrangement with a distance of 34.5 mm between two opposing detector modules, defining a field of view (FOV) of 32 {\texttimes} 32 {\texttimes} 32 mm3. Each detector consists of a thin monolithic LYSO crystal of 32 {\texttimes} 32 {\texttimes} 2 mm3 optically coupled to a digital silicon photomultiplier (dSiPM). Event positioning within each detector was obtained using the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method. To evaluate the system performance, we measured the energy resolution, coincidence resolving time (CRT), sensitivity and spatial resolution. The image quality was evaluated by acquiring a hot-rod phantom filled with 18F-FDG and a rat head one hour after an 18F-FDG injection. The MLE yielded an average intrinsic spatial resolution on the detector of 0.54 mm FWHM. We obtained a CRT of 680 ps and an energy resolution of 18\% FWHM at 511 keV. The sensitivity and spatial resolution obtained at the center of the FOV were 6.0 cps kBq-1 and 0.7 mm, respectively. In the reconstructed images of the hot-rod phantom, hot rods down to 0.7 mm can be discriminated. In conclusion, a compact PET scanner was built using dSiPM technology and thin monolithic LYSO crystals. Excellent spatial resolution and acceptable sensitivity were demonstrated. Promising results were also obtained in a hot-rod phantom and in rat-brain imaging.},
  author       = {Espana Palomares, Samuel and Marcinkowski, Radoslaw and Keereman, Vincent and Vandenberghe, Stefaan and Van Holen, Roel},
  editor       = {Chorlton, Emma and Kelsall, Richard and Stephens, Marric},
  issn         = {0031-9155},
  journal      = {PHYSICS IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY},
  keyword      = {CONTINUOUS LSO,PERFORMANCE EVALUATION,monolithic crystals,PET,SIPM,DESIGN,POSITION,MICROPET,DETECTOR,SCANNER,WIRE CHAMBER,dSiPM,BAF2 CRYSTALS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {13},
  pages        = {3405--3420},
  title        = {DigiPET: sub-millimeter spatial resolution small-animal PET imaging using thin monolithic scintillators},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0031-9155/59/13/3405},
  volume       = {59},
  year         = {2014},
}

Chicago
Espana Palomares, Samuel, Radoslaw Marcinkowski, Vincent Keereman, Stefaan Vandenberghe, and Roel Van Holen. 2014. “DigiPET: Sub-millimeter Spatial Resolution Small-animal PET Imaging Using Thin Monolithic Scintillators.” Ed. Emma Chorlton, Richard Kelsall, and Marric Stephens. Physics in Medicine and Biology 59 (13): 3405–3420.
APA
Espana Palomares, S., Marcinkowski, R., Keereman, V., Vandenberghe, S., & Van Holen, R. (2014). DigiPET: sub-millimeter spatial resolution small-animal PET imaging using thin monolithic scintillators. (E. Chorlton, R. Kelsall, & M. Stephens, Eds.)PHYSICS IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY, 59(13), 3405–3420.
Vancouver
1.
Espana Palomares S, Marcinkowski R, Keereman V, Vandenberghe S, Van Holen R. DigiPET: sub-millimeter spatial resolution small-animal PET imaging using thin monolithic scintillators. Chorlton E, Kelsall R, Stephens M, editors. PHYSICS IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY. 2014;59(13):3405–20.
MLA
Espana Palomares, Samuel, Radoslaw Marcinkowski, Vincent Keereman, et al. “DigiPET: Sub-millimeter Spatial Resolution Small-animal PET Imaging Using Thin Monolithic Scintillators.” Ed. Emma Chorlton, Richard Kelsall, & Marric Stephens. PHYSICS IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY 59.13 (2014): 3405–3420. Print.