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Minimum end-tidal sevoflurane concentration necessary to prevent movement during a constant rate infusion of morphine, or morphine plus dexmedetomidine in ponies

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Abstract
Objective : To compare the effects of a constant rate infusion (CRI) of dexmedetomidine and morphine to those of morphine alone on the minimum end-tidal sevoflurane concentration necessary to prevent movement (MAC(NM)) in ponies. Study design : Prospective, randomized, crossover, 'blinded', experimental study. Animals : Five healthy adult gelding ponies were anaesthetized twice with a 3-week washout period. Methods : After induction of anaesthesia with sevoflurane in oxygen (via nasotracheal tube), the ponies were positioned on a surgical table (T0), and anaesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane (Fe ' SEVO 2.5%) in 55% oxygen. Monitoring included pulse oximetry, electrocardiography and measurement of anaesthetic gases, arterial blood pressure and body temperature. The ponies were mechanically ventilated and randomly allocated to receive IV treatment M [morphine 0.15mgkg(-1) (T10-T15) followed by a CRI (0.1mgkg(-1)hour(-1))] or treatment DM [dexmedetomidine 3.5 mu gkg(-1) plus morphine 0.15mgkg(-1) (T10-T15) followed by a CRI of dexmedetomidine 1.75 mu gkg(-1)hour(-1) and morphine 0.1mgkg(-1)hour(-1)]. At T60, a stepwise MAC(NM) determination was initiated using constant current electrical stimuli at the skin of the lateral pastern region. Triplicate MAC(NM) estimations were obtained and then averaged in each pony. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to detect differences in MAC between treatments (alpha=0.05). Results : Sevoflurane-morphine MAC(NM) values (median (range) and mean +/- SD) were 2.56 (2.01-4.07) and 2.79 +/- 0.73%. The addition of a continuous infusion of dexmedetomidine significantly reduced sevoflurane MAC(NM) values to 0.89 (0.62-1.05) and 0.89 +/- 0.22% (mean MAC(NM) reduction 67 +/- 11%). Conclusion and clinical relevance : Co-administration of dexmedetomidine and morphine CRIs significantly reduced the MAC(NM) of sevoflurane compared with a CRI of morphine alone at the reported doses.
Keywords
RECOVERY, RESPONSES, DOGS, ISOFLURANE, ANALGESIA, morphine, minimal alveolar concentration, ponies, sevoflurane, dexmedetomidine, constant-rate infusion, ALVEOLAR CONCENTRATION, CARDIOPULMONARY FUNCTION, PERIOPERATIVE MORPHINE, HALOTHANE ANESTHESIA, ANESTHETIZED HORSES

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Chicago
Gozalo Marcilla, Miguel, Klaus Hopster, Frank Gasthuys, Anna Elisabeth Krajewski, Andrea Schwarz, and Stijn Schauvliege. 2014. “Minimum End-tidal Sevoflurane Concentration Necessary to Prevent Movement During a Constant Rate Infusion of Morphine, or Morphine Plus Dexmedetomidine in Ponies.” Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 41 (2): 212–219.
APA
Gozalo Marcilla, M., Hopster, K., Gasthuys, F., Krajewski, A. E., Schwarz, A., & Schauvliege, S. (2014). Minimum end-tidal sevoflurane concentration necessary to prevent movement during a constant rate infusion of morphine, or morphine plus dexmedetomidine in ponies. VETERINARY ANAESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA, 41(2), 212–219.
Vancouver
1.
Gozalo Marcilla M, Hopster K, Gasthuys F, Krajewski AE, Schwarz A, Schauvliege S. Minimum end-tidal sevoflurane concentration necessary to prevent movement during a constant rate infusion of morphine, or morphine plus dexmedetomidine in ponies. VETERINARY ANAESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA. 2014;41(2):212–9.
MLA
Gozalo Marcilla, Miguel, Klaus Hopster, Frank Gasthuys, et al. “Minimum End-tidal Sevoflurane Concentration Necessary to Prevent Movement During a Constant Rate Infusion of Morphine, or Morphine Plus Dexmedetomidine in Ponies.” VETERINARY ANAESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA 41.2 (2014): 212–219. Print.
@article{4408028,
  abstract     = {Objective : To compare the effects of a constant rate infusion (CRI) of dexmedetomidine and morphine to those of morphine alone on the minimum end-tidal sevoflurane concentration necessary to prevent movement (MAC(NM)) in ponies.
Study design : Prospective, randomized, crossover, 'blinded', experimental study. 
Animals : Five healthy adult gelding ponies were anaesthetized twice with a 3-week washout period.
Methods : After induction of anaesthesia with sevoflurane in oxygen (via nasotracheal tube), the ponies were positioned on a surgical table (T0), and anaesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane (Fe ' SEVO 2.5%) in 55% oxygen. Monitoring included pulse oximetry, electrocardiography and measurement of anaesthetic gases, arterial blood pressure and body temperature. The ponies were mechanically ventilated and randomly allocated to receive IV treatment M [morphine 0.15mgkg(-1) (T10-T15) followed by a CRI (0.1mgkg(-1)hour(-1))] or treatment DM [dexmedetomidine 3.5 mu gkg(-1) plus morphine 0.15mgkg(-1) (T10-T15) followed by a CRI of dexmedetomidine 1.75 mu gkg(-1)hour(-1) and morphine 0.1mgkg(-1)hour(-1)]. At T60, a stepwise MAC(NM) determination was initiated using constant current electrical stimuli at the skin of the lateral pastern region. Triplicate MAC(NM) estimations were obtained and then averaged in each pony. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to detect differences in MAC between treatments (alpha=0.05).
Results : Sevoflurane-morphine MAC(NM) values (median (range) and mean +/- SD) were 2.56 (2.01-4.07) and 2.79 +/- 0.73%. The addition of a continuous infusion of dexmedetomidine significantly reduced sevoflurane MAC(NM) values to 0.89 (0.62-1.05) and 0.89 +/- 0.22% (mean MAC(NM) reduction 67 +/- 11%).
Conclusion and clinical relevance : Co-administration of dexmedetomidine and morphine CRIs significantly reduced the MAC(NM) of sevoflurane compared with a CRI of morphine alone at the reported doses.},
  author       = {Gozalo Marcilla, Miguel and Hopster, Klaus and Gasthuys, Frank and Krajewski, Anna Elisabeth and Schwarz, Andrea and Schauvliege, Stijn},
  issn         = {1467-2987},
  journal      = {VETERINARY ANAESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA},
  keywords     = {RECOVERY,RESPONSES,DOGS,ISOFLURANE,ANALGESIA,morphine,minimal alveolar concentration,ponies,sevoflurane,dexmedetomidine,constant-rate infusion,ALVEOLAR CONCENTRATION,CARDIOPULMONARY FUNCTION,PERIOPERATIVE MORPHINE,HALOTHANE ANESTHESIA,ANESTHETIZED HORSES},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {212--219},
  title        = {Minimum end-tidal sevoflurane concentration necessary to prevent movement during a constant rate infusion of morphine, or morphine plus dexmedetomidine in ponies},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vaa.12090},
  volume       = {41},
  year         = {2014},
}

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