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Combined alkaline hydrolysis and ultrasound-assisted extraction for the release of nonextractable phenolics from cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) waste

Gerard Gonzales (UGent) , Guy Smagghe (UGent) , Katleen Raes (UGent) and John Van Camp (UGent)
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Abstract
Cauliflower waste contains high amounts phenolic compounds, but conventional solvent extraction misses high amounts of nonextractable phenolics (NEP), which may contribute more to the valorization of these waste streams. In this study, the NEP content and composition of cauliflower waste were investigated. The ability of alkaline hydrolysis, sonication, and their combination to release NEP was assessed. Alkaline hydrolysis with sonication was found to extract the highest NEP content (7.3 +/- 0.17 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g dry waste), which was higher than the extractable fraction. The highest yield was obtained after treatment of 2 M NaOH at 60 degrees C for 30 min of sonication. Quantification and identification were done using U(H)PLC-DAD and U(H)PLC-ESI-MSE. Kaempferol and quercetin glucosides along with several phenolic acids were found. The results of the study show that there are higher amounts of valuable health-promoting compounds from cauliflower waste than what is currently described in the literature.
Keywords
BY-PRODUCTS, bound phenolics, DIETARY POLYPHENOLS, L., LEAVES, FOODS, ultrasound-assisted extraction, ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY, U(H)PLC-MS, cauliflower waste, FLAVONOID GLYCOSIDES, phenolics

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MLA
Gonzales, Gerard, et al. “Combined Alkaline Hydrolysis and Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction for the Release of Nonextractable Phenolics from Cauliflower (Brassica Oleracea Var. Botrytis) Waste.” JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY, vol. 62, no. 15, 2014, pp. 3371–76.
APA
Gonzales, G., Smagghe, G., Raes, K., & Van Camp, J. (2014). Combined alkaline hydrolysis and ultrasound-assisted extraction for the release of nonextractable phenolics from cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) waste. JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY, 62(15), 3371–3376.
Chicago author-date
Gonzales, Gerard, Guy Smagghe, Katleen Raes, and John Van Camp. 2014. “Combined Alkaline Hydrolysis and Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction for the Release of Nonextractable Phenolics from Cauliflower (Brassica Oleracea Var. Botrytis) Waste.” JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY 62 (15): 3371–76.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Gonzales, Gerard, Guy Smagghe, Katleen Raes, and John Van Camp. 2014. “Combined Alkaline Hydrolysis and Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction for the Release of Nonextractable Phenolics from Cauliflower (Brassica Oleracea Var. Botrytis) Waste.” JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY 62 (15): 3371–3376.
Vancouver
1.
Gonzales G, Smagghe G, Raes K, Van Camp J. Combined alkaline hydrolysis and ultrasound-assisted extraction for the release of nonextractable phenolics from cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) waste. JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY. 2014;62(15):3371–6.
IEEE
[1]
G. Gonzales, G. Smagghe, K. Raes, and J. Van Camp, “Combined alkaline hydrolysis and ultrasound-assisted extraction for the release of nonextractable phenolics from cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) waste,” JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY, vol. 62, no. 15, pp. 3371–3376, 2014.
@article{4405119,
  abstract     = {{Cauliflower waste contains high amounts phenolic compounds, but conventional solvent extraction misses high amounts of nonextractable phenolics (NEP), which may contribute more to the valorization of these waste streams. In this study, the NEP content and composition of cauliflower waste were investigated. The ability of alkaline hydrolysis, sonication, and their combination to release NEP was assessed. Alkaline hydrolysis with sonication was found to extract the highest NEP content (7.3 +/- 0.17 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g dry waste), which was higher than the extractable fraction. The highest yield was obtained after treatment of 2 M NaOH at 60 degrees C for 30 min of sonication. Quantification and identification were done using U(H)PLC-DAD and U(H)PLC-ESI-MSE. Kaempferol and quercetin glucosides along with several phenolic acids were found. The results of the study show that there are higher amounts of valuable health-promoting compounds from cauliflower waste than what is currently described in the literature.}},
  author       = {{Gonzales, Gerard and Smagghe, Guy and Raes, Katleen and Van Camp, John}},
  issn         = {{0021-8561}},
  journal      = {{JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY}},
  keywords     = {{BY-PRODUCTS,bound phenolics,DIETARY POLYPHENOLS,L.,LEAVES,FOODS,ultrasound-assisted extraction,ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY,U(H)PLC-MS,cauliflower waste,FLAVONOID GLYCOSIDES,phenolics}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{15}},
  pages        = {{3371--3376}},
  title        = {{Combined alkaline hydrolysis and ultrasound-assisted extraction for the release of nonextractable phenolics from cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) waste}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf500835q}},
  volume       = {{62}},
  year         = {{2014}},
}

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