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Automatic motor activation by mere instruction

Tom Everaert (UGent) , Marijke Theeuwes (UGent) , Baptist Liefooghe (UGent) and Jan De Houwer (UGent)
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Abstract
Previous behavioral studies have shown that instructions about stimulus-response (S-R) mappings can influence task performance even when these instructions are irrelevant for the current task. In the present study, we tested whether automatic effects of S-R instructions occur because the instructed stimuli automatically activate their corresponding responses. We registered the lateralized readiness potentials (LRPs) that were evoked by the instructed stimuli while participants were performing a task for which those mappings were irrelevant. Instructed S-R mappings clearly affected task performance in electrophysiological and behavioral measures. The LRP was found to deflect in the direction of the response tendency that corresponded with the instructed S-R mapping. Early activation of the instructed response was observed but occurred predominantly on slow trials. In contrast, response conflict evoked by instructed S-R mappings did not modulate the N2 amplitude. The results strongly suggest that, like experienced S-R mappings, instructed S-R mappings can lead to automatic response activation, but possibly via a different route.
Keywords
DUAL-PROCESS MODEL, STIMULUS-RESPONSE COMPATIBILITY, FLANKER PARADIGM, WORKING-MEMORY, STRATEGIC CONTROL, FUNCTIONAL LOCUS, ERROR-DETECTION, ERP COMPONENTS, TASK, LRP, Learning, Instruction, Erp, Cognitive control, Working memory

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Citation

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Chicago
Everaert, Tom, Marijke Theeuwes, Baptist Liefooghe, and Jan De Houwer. 2014. “Automatic Motor Activation by Mere Instruction.” Cognitive Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience 14 (4): 1300–1309.
APA
Everaert, T., Theeuwes, M., Liefooghe, B., & De Houwer, J. (2014). Automatic motor activation by mere instruction. COGNITIVE AFFECTIVE & BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE, 14(4), 1300–1309.
Vancouver
1.
Everaert T, Theeuwes M, Liefooghe B, De Houwer J. Automatic motor activation by mere instruction. COGNITIVE AFFECTIVE & BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE. 2014;14(4):1300–9.
MLA
Everaert, Tom, Marijke Theeuwes, Baptist Liefooghe, et al. “Automatic Motor Activation by Mere Instruction.” COGNITIVE AFFECTIVE & BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE 14.4 (2014): 1300–1309. Print.
@article{4403480,
  abstract     = {Previous behavioral studies have shown that instructions about stimulus-response (S-R) mappings can influence task performance even when these instructions are irrelevant for the current task. In the present study, we tested whether automatic effects of S-R instructions occur because the instructed stimuli automatically activate their corresponding responses. We registered the lateralized readiness potentials (LRPs) that were evoked by the instructed stimuli while participants were performing a task for which those mappings were irrelevant. Instructed S-R mappings clearly affected task performance in electrophysiological and behavioral measures. The LRP was found to deflect in the direction of the response tendency that corresponded with the instructed S-R mapping. Early activation of the instructed response was observed but occurred predominantly on slow trials. In contrast, response conflict evoked by instructed S-R mappings did not modulate the N2 amplitude. The results strongly suggest that, like experienced S-R mappings, instructed S-R mappings can lead to automatic response activation, but possibly via a different route.},
  author       = {Everaert, Tom and Theeuwes, Marijke and Liefooghe, Baptist and De Houwer, Jan},
  issn         = {1530-7026},
  journal      = {COGNITIVE AFFECTIVE \& BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE},
  keyword      = {DUAL-PROCESS MODEL,STIMULUS-RESPONSE COMPATIBILITY,FLANKER PARADIGM,WORKING-MEMORY,STRATEGIC CONTROL,FUNCTIONAL LOCUS,ERROR-DETECTION,ERP COMPONENTS,TASK,LRP,Learning,Instruction,Erp,Cognitive control,Working memory},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {1300--1309},
  title        = {Automatic motor activation by mere instruction},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13415-014-0294-7},
  volume       = {14},
  year         = {2014},
}

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