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The creative brain: corepresenting schema violations enhances TPJ activity and boosts cognitive flexibility

(2014) CREATIVITY RESEARCH JOURNAL. 26(2). p.144-150
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Abstract
Cognitive flexibility is one of the essential mental abilities underlying creative thinking. Previous findings have shown that cognitive flexibility can be enhanced by schema violations, and it has been suggested that active involvement is needed for schema violations to facilitate cognitive flexibility. The possibility that identification with an actor performing a schema violation (i.e., corepresenting an active schema violation) can enhance cognitive flexibility was investigated in 2 studies. In the first study, under conditions of high or low identification, participants watched an actor preparing a sandwich. The way the actor made the sandwich followed either a schema violation or contained the normal schema of preparing a sandwich. When identification was high, watching a schema-violation-enhanced cognitive flexibility as compared to watching the corresponding normal event. No effect of schema violation occurred under conditions of low identification. As little is known about the neural correlates of schema violations, in the second study the brain activity during schema violations was explored by means of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Participants were instructed to identify with an actor and brain activity was measured while participants watched the actor performing a schema violation or the corresponding normal schema. Activity in the temporal parietal junction (TPJ), a brain region that is associated with violation of expectations, was higher in the schema-violation condition than in the normal schema condition. These findings enhance the theoretical understanding of the effects of schema violations and may provide important practical implications in various settings where creative thinking is needed.
Keywords
CO-REPRESENTATION, PERSPECTIVE-TAKING, PARIETAL JUNCTION, ATTENTION, ENVIRONMENT, THINKING, EMPATHY, TASK, MIND

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MLA
Ritter, Simone N, Simone M Kühn, Barbara CN Müller, et al. “The Creative Brain: Corepresenting Schema Violations Enhances TPJ Activity and Boosts Cognitive Flexibility.” CREATIVITY RESEARCH JOURNAL 26.2 (2014): 144–150. Print.
APA
Ritter, S. N., Kühn, S. M., Müller, B. C., van Baaren, R. C., Brass, M., & Dijksterhuis, A. (2014). The creative brain: corepresenting schema violations enhances TPJ activity and boosts cognitive flexibility. CREATIVITY RESEARCH JOURNAL, 26(2), 144–150.
Chicago author-date
Ritter, Simone N, Simone M Kühn, Barbara CN Müller, Rick C van Baaren, Marcel Brass, and Ap Dijksterhuis. 2014. “The Creative Brain: Corepresenting Schema Violations Enhances TPJ Activity and Boosts Cognitive Flexibility.” Creativity Research Journal 26 (2): 144–150.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Ritter, Simone N, Simone M Kühn, Barbara CN Müller, Rick C van Baaren, Marcel Brass, and Ap Dijksterhuis. 2014. “The Creative Brain: Corepresenting Schema Violations Enhances TPJ Activity and Boosts Cognitive Flexibility.” Creativity Research Journal 26 (2): 144–150.
Vancouver
1.
Ritter SN, Kühn SM, Müller BC, van Baaren RC, Brass M, Dijksterhuis A. The creative brain: corepresenting schema violations enhances TPJ activity and boosts cognitive flexibility. CREATIVITY RESEARCH JOURNAL. 2014;26(2):144–50.
IEEE
[1]
S. N. Ritter, S. M. Kühn, B. C. Müller, R. C. van Baaren, M. Brass, and A. Dijksterhuis, “The creative brain: corepresenting schema violations enhances TPJ activity and boosts cognitive flexibility,” CREATIVITY RESEARCH JOURNAL, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 144–150, 2014.
@article{4389724,
  abstract     = {Cognitive flexibility is one of the essential mental abilities underlying creative thinking. Previous findings have shown that cognitive flexibility can be enhanced by schema violations, and it has been suggested that active involvement is needed for schema violations to facilitate cognitive flexibility. The possibility that identification with an actor performing a schema violation (i.e., corepresenting an active schema violation) can enhance cognitive flexibility was investigated in 2 studies. In the first study, under conditions of high or low identification, participants watched an actor preparing a sandwich. The way the actor made the sandwich followed either a schema violation or contained the normal schema of preparing a sandwich. When identification was high, watching a schema-violation-enhanced cognitive flexibility as compared to watching the corresponding normal event. No effect of schema violation occurred under conditions of low identification. As little is known about the neural correlates of schema violations, in the second study the brain activity during schema violations was explored by means of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Participants were instructed to identify with an actor and brain activity was measured while participants watched the actor performing a schema violation or the corresponding normal schema. Activity in the temporal parietal junction (TPJ), a brain region that is associated with violation of expectations, was higher in the schema-violation condition than in the normal schema condition. These findings enhance the theoretical understanding of the effects of schema violations and may provide important practical implications in various settings where creative thinking is needed.},
  author       = {Ritter, Simone N and Kühn, Simone M and Müller, Barbara CN and van Baaren, Rick C and Brass, Marcel and Dijksterhuis, Ap },
  issn         = {1040-0419},
  journal      = {CREATIVITY RESEARCH JOURNAL},
  keywords     = {CO-REPRESENTATION,PERSPECTIVE-TAKING,PARIETAL JUNCTION,ATTENTION,ENVIRONMENT,THINKING,EMPATHY,TASK,MIND},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {144--150},
  title        = {The creative brain: corepresenting schema violations enhances TPJ activity and boosts cognitive flexibility},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10400419.2014.901061},
  volume       = {26},
  year         = {2014},
}

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