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Expressive body movement responses to music are coherent, consistent, and low dimensional

Denis Amelynck (UGent) , Pieter-Jan Maes (UGent) , Jean-Pierre Martens (UGent) and Marc Leman (UGent)
(2014) IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CYBERNETICS. 44(12). p.2288-2301
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Abstract
Embodied music cognition stresses the role of the human body as mediator for the encoding and decoding of musical expression. In this paper, we set up a low dimensional functional model that accounts for 70% of the variability in the expressive body movement responses to music. With the functional principal component analysis, we modeled individual body movements as a linear combination of a group average and a number of eigenfunctions. The group average and the eigenfunctions are common to all subjects and make up what we call the commonalities. An individual performance is then characterized by a set of scores (the individualities), one score per eigenfunction. The model is based on experimental data which finds high levels of coherence/consistency between participants when grouped according to musical education. This shows an ontogenetic effect. Participants without formal musical education focus on the torso for the expression of basic musical structure (tempo). Musically trained participants decode additional structural elements in the music and focus on body parts having more degrees of freedom (such as the hands). Our results confirm earlier studies that different body parts move differently along with the music.
Keywords
embodied music cognition, IMITATION, Dynamical systems, musical expressiveness, IPEMexpressive, CONFIDENCE-INTERVALS, functional data analysis, GESTURES, PERCEPTION, COGNITION, HAND, SIZE

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Chicago
Amelynck, Denis, Pieter-Jan Maes, Jean-Pierre Martens, and Marc Leman. 2014. “Expressive Body Movement Responses to Music Are Coherent, Consistent, and Low Dimensional.” Ieee Transactions on Cybernetics 44 (12): 2288–2301.
APA
Amelynck, D., Maes, P.-J., Martens, J.-P., & Leman, M. (2014). Expressive body movement responses to music are coherent, consistent, and low dimensional. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CYBERNETICS, 44(12), 2288–2301.
Vancouver
1.
Amelynck D, Maes P-J, Martens J-P, Leman M. Expressive body movement responses to music are coherent, consistent, and low dimensional. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CYBERNETICS. 2014;44(12):2288–301.
MLA
Amelynck, Denis, Pieter-Jan Maes, Jean-Pierre Martens, et al. “Expressive Body Movement Responses to Music Are Coherent, Consistent, and Low Dimensional.” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CYBERNETICS 44.12 (2014): 2288–2301. Print.
@article{4389477,
  abstract     = {Embodied music cognition stresses the role of the human body as mediator for the encoding and decoding of musical expression. In this paper, we set up a low dimensional functional model that accounts for 70\% of the variability in the expressive body movement responses to music. With the functional principal component analysis, we modeled individual body movements as a linear combination of a group average and a number of eigenfunctions. The group average and the eigenfunctions are common to all subjects and make up what we call the commonalities. An individual performance is then characterized by a set of scores (the individualities), one score per eigenfunction. The model is based on experimental data which finds high levels of coherence/consistency between participants when grouped according to musical education. This shows an ontogenetic effect. Participants without formal musical education focus on the torso for the expression of basic musical structure (tempo). Musically trained participants decode additional structural elements in the music and focus on body parts having more degrees of freedom (such as the hands). Our results confirm earlier studies that different body parts move differently along with the music.},
  author       = {Amelynck, Denis and Maes, Pieter-Jan and Martens, Jean-Pierre and Leman, Marc},
  issn         = {2168-2267},
  journal      = {IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CYBERNETICS},
  keyword      = {embodied music cognition,IMITATION,Dynamical systems,musical expressiveness,IPEMexpressive,CONFIDENCE-INTERVALS,functional data analysis,GESTURES,PERCEPTION,COGNITION,HAND,SIZE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {12},
  pages        = {2288--2301},
  title        = {Expressive body movement responses to music are coherent, consistent, and low dimensional},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TCYB.2014.2305998},
  volume       = {44},
  year         = {2014},
}

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