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The Herschel Fornax Cluster survey, I : the bright galaxy sample

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Abstract
We present Herschel Space Telescope observations of the nearby Fornax cluster at 100, 160, 250, 350 and 500 mu m with a spatial resolution of 7-36 arcsec (10 arcsec approximate to 1 kpc at d(Fornax) = 17.9Mpc). We define a sample of 11 bright galaxies, selected at 500 mu m, that can be directly compared with our past work on the Virgo cluster. We check and compare our results with previous observations made by IRAS and Planck, finding good agreement. The far-infrared luminosity density is higher, by about a factor of 3, in Fornax compared to Virgo, consistent with the higher number density of galaxies. The 100 mu m (42.5-122.5 mu m) luminosity is two orders of magnitude larger in Fornax than in the local field as measured by IRAS. We calculate stellar (L0.4-2.5) and far-infrared (L100-500) luminosities for each galaxy and use these to estimate a mean optical depth of tau = 0.4 +/- 0.1 - the same value as we previously found for Virgo cluster galaxies. For 10 of the 11 galaxies (NGC 1399 excepted), we fit a modified blackbody curve (beta = 2.0) to our observed flux densities to derive dust masses and temperatures of 10(6.54-8.35) M-circle dot and T = 14.6-24.2 K, respectively, values comparable to those found for Virgo. The derived stars-to-gas(atomic) and gas(atomic)-to-dust ratios vary from 1.1-67.6 to 9.8-436.5, respectively, again broadly consistent with values for Virgo. Fornax is a mass overdensity in stars and dust of about 120 when compared to the local field (30 for Virgo). Fornax and Virgo are both a factor of 6 lower overdensities in gas(atomic) than in stars and dust indicating loss of gas, but not dust and stars, in the cluster environment. We consider in more detail two of the sample galaxies. As the brightest source in either Fornax or Virgo, NGC 1365 is also detected by Planck. The Planck data fit the PACS/SPIRE spectral energy distribution out to 1382 mu m with no evidence of other sources of emission ('spinning dust', free-free, synchrotron). At the opposite end of the scale, NGC 1399 is detected only at 500 mu m with the emission probably arising from the nuclear radio source rather than interstellar dust.
Keywords
Galaxies: ISM, Galaxies: clusters individual: Fornax, MOLECULAR GAS CONTENT, SPINNING DUST GRAINS, VIRGO CLUSTER, LUMINOSITY FUNCTION, GALACTIC EMISSION, MASS FUNCTION, COLD DUST, REGION, CATALOG, ENVIRONMENT

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MLA
Davies, JI, S Bianchi, Maarten Baes, et al. “The Herschel Fornax Cluster Survey, I : the Bright Galaxy Sample.” MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY 428.1 (2013): 834–844. Print.
APA
Davies, JI, Bianchi, S., Baes, M., Boselli, A., Ciesla, L., Clemens, M., Davis, T., et al. (2013). The Herschel Fornax Cluster survey, I : the bright galaxy sample. MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, 428(1), 834–844.
Chicago author-date
Davies, JI, S Bianchi, Maarten Baes, A Boselli, L Ciesla, M Clemens, TA Davis, et al. 2013. “The Herschel Fornax Cluster Survey, I : the Bright Galaxy Sample.” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 428 (1): 834–844.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Davies, JI, S Bianchi, Maarten Baes, A Boselli, L Ciesla, M Clemens, TA Davis, Ilse De Looze, S di Serego Alighieri, C Fuller, Jacopo Fritz, LK Hunt, P Serra, MWL Smith, Joris Verstappen, C Vlahakis, EM Xilouris, D Bomans, Thomas Hughes, D Garcia-Appadoo, and S Madden. 2013. “The Herschel Fornax Cluster Survey, I : the Bright Galaxy Sample.” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 428 (1): 834–844.
Vancouver
1.
Davies J, Bianchi S, Baes M, Boselli A, Ciesla L, Clemens M, et al. The Herschel Fornax Cluster survey, I : the bright galaxy sample. MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY. 2013;428(1):834–44.
IEEE
[1]
J. Davies et al., “The Herschel Fornax Cluster survey, I : the bright galaxy sample,” MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, vol. 428, no. 1, pp. 834–844, 2013.
@article{4385936,
  abstract     = {We present Herschel Space Telescope observations of the nearby Fornax cluster at 100, 160, 250, 350 and 500 mu m with a spatial resolution of 7-36 arcsec (10 arcsec approximate to 1 kpc at d(Fornax) = 17.9Mpc). We define a sample of 11 bright galaxies, selected at 500 mu m, that can be directly compared with our past work on the Virgo cluster. We check and compare our results with previous observations made by IRAS and Planck, finding good agreement. The far-infrared luminosity density is higher, by about a factor of 3, in Fornax compared to Virgo, consistent with the higher number density of galaxies. The 100 mu m (42.5-122.5 mu m) luminosity is two orders of magnitude larger in Fornax than in the local field as measured by IRAS. We calculate stellar (L0.4-2.5) and far-infrared (L100-500) luminosities for each galaxy and use these to estimate a mean optical depth of tau = 0.4 +/- 0.1 - the same value as we previously found for Virgo cluster galaxies. For 10 of the 11 galaxies (NGC 1399 excepted), we fit a modified blackbody curve (beta = 2.0) to our observed flux densities to derive dust masses and temperatures of 10(6.54-8.35) M-circle dot and T = 14.6-24.2 K, respectively, values comparable to those found for Virgo. The derived stars-to-gas(atomic) and gas(atomic)-to-dust ratios vary from 1.1-67.6 to 9.8-436.5, respectively, again broadly consistent with values for Virgo. Fornax is a mass overdensity in stars and dust of about 120 when compared to the local field (30 for Virgo). Fornax and Virgo are both a factor of 6 lower overdensities in gas(atomic) than in stars and dust indicating loss of gas, but not dust and stars, in the cluster environment. We consider in more detail two of the sample galaxies. As the brightest source in either Fornax or Virgo, NGC 1365 is also detected by Planck. The Planck data fit the PACS/SPIRE spectral energy distribution out to 1382 mu m with no evidence of other sources of emission ('spinning dust', free-free, synchrotron). At the opposite end of the scale, NGC 1399 is detected only at 500 mu m with the emission probably arising from the nuclear radio source rather than interstellar dust.},
  author       = {Davies, JI and Bianchi, S and Baes, Maarten and Boselli, A and Ciesla, L and Clemens, M and Davis, TA and De Looze, Ilse and di Serego Alighieri, S and Fuller, C and Fritz, Jacopo and Hunt, LK and Serra, P and Smith, MWL and Verstappen, Joris and Vlahakis, C and Xilouris, EM and Bomans, D and Hughes, Thomas and Garcia-Appadoo, D and Madden, S},
  issn         = {0035-8711},
  journal      = {MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY},
  keywords     = {Galaxies: ISM,Galaxies: clusters individual: Fornax,MOLECULAR GAS CONTENT,SPINNING DUST GRAINS,VIRGO CLUSTER,LUMINOSITY FUNCTION,GALACTIC EMISSION,MASS FUNCTION,COLD DUST,REGION,CATALOG,ENVIRONMENT},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {834--844},
  title        = {The Herschel Fornax Cluster survey, I : the bright galaxy sample},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mnras/sts082},
  volume       = {428},
  year         = {2013},
}

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