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Infection of swine ex vivo tissues with avian viruses including H7N9 and correlation with glycomic analysis

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Abstract
Objectives: Swine have been regarded as intermediate hosts in the spread of influenza from birds to humans but studies of the sialylated glycans that comprise their respiratory tract have not been extensively studied in the past. This study analyzed the sialylated N-glycan and O-glycan profile of swine trachea and lung and correlated this with ex-vivo infection of swine explants with avian influenza viruses. Sample: Lungs and tracheal samples were obtained from normal farm and laboratory raised swine and used for ex vivo infection as well as mass spectrometric analysis. Infection of the ex vivo tissues used high pathogenic and low pathogenic avian viruses including the novel H7N9 virus that emerged in China in early 2013. Main outcome measures: Assessment of successful replication was determined by TCID50 as well as virus immunohistochemistry. The N-glycan and O-glycan profiles were measured by MALDI-TOF and sialylated linkages were determined by sialidase treatment. Lectin binding histochemistry was also performed on formalin fixed tissue samples with positive binding detected by chromogen staining. Results: The swine respiratory tract glycans differed from the human respiratory tact glycans in two main areas. There was a greater abundance of Gal-alpha-Gal linkages resulting in a relative decrease in sialylated glycans. The swine respiratory tract also had a greater proportion of glycans containing Neu5Gc and Sia alpha 2-6 glycans than the human respiratory tract. Infection with avian viruses was confined primarily to lung bronchioles rather than trachea and parenchyma. Conclusions: In contrast to previous studies we found that there was not as much expression of Sia alpha 2-3 glycans on the surface of the trachea. Infection of Sia alpha 2-3 binding avian viruses was restricted to the lower respiratory tract bronchioles. This finding may diminish the ability of the swine to act as an intermediary in the transmission of avian viruses to humans.
Keywords
INFLUENZA-A VIRUS, influenza A virus, swine, RECEPTOR-BINDING SPECIFICITY, H5N1 VIRUSES, IN-VITRO, RESPIRATORY EPITHELIAL-CELLS, TRANSMISSION, PIGS, GLYCANS, ORIGIN, FERRETS, Glycomics

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MLA
Chan, Renee WY, Rositsa Karamanska, Sjouke Van Poucke, et al. “Infection of Swine Ex Vivo Tissues with Avian Viruses Including H7N9 and Correlation with Glycomic Analysis.” INFLUENZA AND OTHER RESPIRATORY VIRUSES 7.6 (2013): 1269–1282. Print.
APA
Chan, R. W., Karamanska, R., Van Poucke, S., Van Reeth, K., Chan, I. W., Chan, M. C., Dell, A., et al. (2013). Infection of swine ex vivo tissues with avian viruses including H7N9 and correlation with glycomic analysis. INFLUENZA AND OTHER RESPIRATORY VIRUSES, 7(6), 1269–1282.
Chicago author-date
Chan, Renee WY, Rositsa Karamanska, Sjouke Van Poucke, Kristien Van Reeth, Icarus WW Chan, Michael CW Chan, Anne Dell, et al. 2013. “Infection of Swine Ex Vivo Tissues with Avian Viruses Including H7N9 and Correlation with Glycomic Analysis.” Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 7 (6): 1269–1282.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Chan, Renee WY, Rositsa Karamanska, Sjouke Van Poucke, Kristien Van Reeth, Icarus WW Chan, Michael CW Chan, Anne Dell, Joseph SM Peiris, Stuart M Haslam, Yi Guan, and John M Nicholls. 2013. “Infection of Swine Ex Vivo Tissues with Avian Viruses Including H7N9 and Correlation with Glycomic Analysis.” Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 7 (6): 1269–1282.
Vancouver
1.
Chan RW, Karamanska R, Van Poucke S, Van Reeth K, Chan IW, Chan MC, et al. Infection of swine ex vivo tissues with avian viruses including H7N9 and correlation with glycomic analysis. INFLUENZA AND OTHER RESPIRATORY VIRUSES. 2013;7(6):1269–82.
IEEE
[1]
R. W. Chan et al., “Infection of swine ex vivo tissues with avian viruses including H7N9 and correlation with glycomic analysis,” INFLUENZA AND OTHER RESPIRATORY VIRUSES, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 1269–1282, 2013.
@article{4384757,
  abstract     = {{Objectives: Swine have been regarded as intermediate hosts in the spread of influenza from birds to humans but studies of the sialylated glycans that comprise their respiratory tract have not been extensively studied in the past. This study analyzed the sialylated N-glycan and O-glycan profile of swine trachea and lung and correlated this with ex-vivo infection of swine explants with avian influenza viruses.
Sample: Lungs and tracheal samples were obtained from normal farm and laboratory raised swine and used for ex vivo infection as well as mass spectrometric analysis. Infection of the ex vivo tissues used high pathogenic and low pathogenic avian viruses including the novel H7N9 virus that emerged in China in early 2013.
Main outcome measures: Assessment of successful replication was determined by TCID50 as well as virus immunohistochemistry. The N-glycan and O-glycan profiles were measured by MALDI-TOF and sialylated linkages were determined by sialidase treatment. Lectin binding histochemistry was also performed on formalin fixed tissue samples with positive binding detected by chromogen staining.
Results: The swine respiratory tract glycans differed from the human respiratory tact glycans in two main areas. There was a greater abundance of Gal-alpha-Gal linkages resulting in a relative decrease in sialylated glycans. The swine respiratory tract also had a greater proportion of glycans containing Neu5Gc and Sia alpha 2-6 glycans than the human respiratory tract. Infection with avian viruses was confined primarily to lung bronchioles rather than trachea and parenchyma.
Conclusions: In contrast to previous studies we found that there was not as much expression of Sia alpha 2-3 glycans on the surface of the trachea. Infection of Sia alpha 2-3 binding avian viruses was restricted to the lower respiratory tract bronchioles. This finding may diminish the ability of the swine to act as an intermediary in the transmission of avian viruses to humans.}},
  author       = {{Chan, Renee WY and Karamanska, Rositsa and Van Poucke, Sjouke and Van Reeth, Kristien and Chan, Icarus WW and Chan, Michael CW and Dell, Anne and Peiris, Joseph SM and Haslam, Stuart M and Guan, Yi and Nicholls, John M}},
  issn         = {{1750-2640}},
  journal      = {{INFLUENZA AND OTHER RESPIRATORY VIRUSES}},
  keywords     = {{INFLUENZA-A VIRUS,influenza A virus,swine,RECEPTOR-BINDING SPECIFICITY,H5N1 VIRUSES,IN-VITRO,RESPIRATORY EPITHELIAL-CELLS,TRANSMISSION,PIGS,GLYCANS,ORIGIN,FERRETS,Glycomics}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{6}},
  pages        = {{1269--1282}},
  title        = {{Infection of swine ex vivo tissues with avian viruses including H7N9 and correlation with glycomic analysis}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/irv.12144}},
  volume       = {{7}},
  year         = {{2013}},
}

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