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Comparative pathogenesis of an avian H5N2 and a swine H1N1 influenza virus in pigs

Annebel De Vleeschauwer UGent, Kalina Atanasova UGent, Steven Van Borm, Thierry van den Berg, Thomas Bruun Rasmussen, Åse Uttenthal and Kristien Van Reeth UGent (2009) PLOS ONE. 4(8).
abstract
Pigs are considered intermediate hosts for the transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) to humans but the basic organ pathogenesis of AIVs in pigs has been barely studied. We have used 42 four-week-old influenza naive pigs and two different inoculation routes (intranasal and intratracheal) to compare the pathogenesis of a low pathogenic (LP) H5N2 AIV with that of an H1N1 swine influenza virus. The respiratory tract and selected extra-respiratory tissues were examined for virus replication by titration, immunofluorescence and RT-PCR throughout the course of infection. Both viruses caused a productive infection of the entire respiratory tract and epithelial cells in the lungs were the major target. Compared to the swine virus, the AIV produced lower virus titers and fewer antigen positive cells at all levels of the respiratory tract. The respiratory part of the nasal mucosa in particular showed only rare AIV positive cells and this was associated with reduced nasal shedding of the avian compared to the swine virus. The titers and distribution of the AIV varied extremely between individual pigs and were strongly affected by the route of inoculation. Gross lung lesions and clinical signs were milder with the avian than with the swine virus, corresponding with lower viral loads in the lungs. The brainstem was the single extra-respiratory tissue found positive for virus and viral RNA with both viruses. Our data do not reject the theory of the pig as an intermediate host for AIVs, but they suggest that AIVs need to undergo genetic changes to establish full replication potential in pigs. From a biomedical perspective, experimental LP H5 AIV infection of pigs may be useful to examine heterologous protection provided by H5 vaccines or other immunization strategies, as well as for further studies on the molecular pathogenesis and neurotropism of AIVs in mammals.
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
year
type
journalArticle (original)
publication status
published
subject
journal title
PLOS ONE
PLoS One
volume
4
issue
8
article number
e6662
pages
10 pages
Web of Science type
Article
Web of Science id
000269075600010
JCR category
BIOLOGY
JCR impact factor
4.351 (2009)
JCR rank
9/73 (2009)
JCR quartile
1 (2009)
ISSN
1932-6203
DOI
10.1371/journal.pone.0006662
language
English
UGent publication?
yes
classification
A1
copyright statement
I have retained and own the full copyright for this publication
id
4383023
handle
http://hdl.handle.net/1854/LU-4383023
date created
2014-05-13 16:19:16
date last changed
2016-12-21 15:42:04
@article{4383023,
  abstract     = {Pigs are considered intermediate hosts for the transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) to humans but the basic organ pathogenesis of AIVs in pigs has been barely studied. We have used 42 four-week-old influenza naive pigs and two different inoculation routes (intranasal and intratracheal) to compare the pathogenesis of a low pathogenic (LP) H5N2 AIV with that of an H1N1 swine influenza virus. The respiratory tract and selected extra-respiratory tissues were examined for virus replication by titration, immunofluorescence and RT-PCR throughout the course of infection. Both viruses caused a productive infection of the entire respiratory tract and epithelial cells in the lungs were the major target. Compared to the swine virus, the AIV produced lower virus titers and fewer antigen positive cells at all levels of the respiratory tract. The respiratory part of the nasal mucosa in particular showed only rare AIV positive cells and this was associated with reduced nasal shedding of the avian compared to the swine virus. The titers and distribution of the AIV varied extremely between individual pigs and were strongly affected by the route of inoculation. Gross lung lesions and clinical signs were milder with the avian than with the swine virus, corresponding with lower viral loads in the lungs. The brainstem was the single extra-respiratory tissue found positive for virus and viral RNA with both viruses. Our data do not reject the theory of the pig as an intermediate host for AIVs, but they suggest that AIVs need to undergo genetic changes to establish full replication potential in pigs. From a biomedical perspective, experimental LP H5 AIV infection of pigs may be useful to examine heterologous protection provided by H5 vaccines or other immunization strategies, as well as for further studies on the molecular pathogenesis and neurotropism of AIVs in mammals.},
  articleno    = {e6662},
  author       = {De Vleeschauwer, Annebel and Atanasova, Kalina and Van Borm, Steven and van den Berg, Thierry and Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun and Uttenthal, {\AA}se and Van Reeth, Kristien},
  issn         = {1932-6203},
  journal      = {PLOS ONE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {8},
  pages        = {10},
  title        = {Comparative pathogenesis of an avian H5N2 and a swine H1N1 influenza virus in pigs},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006662},
  volume       = {4},
  year         = {2009},
}

Chicago
De Vleeschauwer, Annebel, Kalina Atanasova, Steven Van Borm, Thierry van den Berg, Thomas Bruun Rasmussen, Åse Uttenthal, and Kristien Van Reeth. 2009. “Comparative Pathogenesis of an Avian H5N2 and a Swine H1N1 Influenza Virus in Pigs.” Plos One 4 (8).
APA
De Vleeschauwer, A., Atanasova, K., Van Borm, S., van den Berg, T., Rasmussen, T. B., Uttenthal, Å., & Van Reeth, K. (2009). Comparative pathogenesis of an avian H5N2 and a swine H1N1 influenza virus in pigs. PLOS ONE, 4(8).
Vancouver
1.
De Vleeschauwer A, Atanasova K, Van Borm S, van den Berg T, Rasmussen TB, Uttenthal Å, et al. Comparative pathogenesis of an avian H5N2 and a swine H1N1 influenza virus in pigs. PLOS ONE. 2009;4(8).
MLA
De Vleeschauwer, Annebel, Kalina Atanasova, Steven Van Borm, et al. “Comparative Pathogenesis of an Avian H5N2 and a Swine H1N1 Influenza Virus in Pigs.” PLOS ONE 4.8 (2009): n. pag. Print.