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Differential methylation during maize leaf growth targets developmentally regulated genes

(2014) PLANT PHYSIOLOGY. 164(3). p.1350-1364
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Biotechnology for a sustainable economy (Bio-Economy)
Abstract
DNA methylation is an important and widespread epigenetic modification in plant genomes, mediated by DNA methyltransferases (DMTs). DNA methylation is known to play a role in genome protection, regulation of gene expression, and splicing and was previously associated with major developmental reprogramming in plants, such as vernalization and transition to flowering. Here, we show that DNA methylation also controls the growth processes of cell division and cell expansion within a growing organ. The maize (Zea mays) leaf offers a great tool to study growth processes, as the cells progressively move through the spatial gradient encompassing the division zone, transition zone, elongation zone, and mature zone. Opposite to de novo DMTs, the maintenance DMTs were transcriptionally regulated throughout the growth zone of the maize leaf, concomitant with differential CCGG methylation levels in the four zones. Surprisingly, the majority of differentially methylated sequences mapped on or close to gene bodies and not to repeat-rich loci. Moreover, especially the 59 and 39 regions of genes, which show overall low methylation levels, underwent differential methylation in a developmental context. Genes involved in processes such as chromatin remodeling, cell cycle progression, and growth regulation, were differentially methylated. The presence of differential methylation located upstream of the gene anticorrelated with transcript expression, while gene body differential methylation was unrelated to the expression level. These data indicate that DNA methylation is correlated with the decision to exit mitotic cell division and to enter cell expansion, which adds a new epigenetic level to the regulation of growth processes.
Keywords
GENOME, METHYLTRANSFERASES, HIGHER-PLANTS, ENDOSPERM, EPIGENETIC CONTROL, CYTOSINE METHYLATION, ZEA-MAYS, POLYMERASE-CHAIN-REACTION, ARABIDOPSIS-THALIANA, DNA METHYLATION

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Citation

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Chicago
Candaele, Jasper, Kirin Demuynck, Douglas Mosoti, Gerrit TS Beemster, Dirk Inzé, and Hilde Nelissen. 2014. “Differential Methylation During Maize Leaf Growth Targets Developmentally Regulated Genes.” Plant Physiology 164 (3): 1350–1364.
APA
Candaele, J., Demuynck, K., Mosoti, D., Beemster, G. T., Inzé, D., & Nelissen, H. (2014). Differential methylation during maize leaf growth targets developmentally regulated genes. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY, 164(3), 1350–1364.
Vancouver
1.
Candaele J, Demuynck K, Mosoti D, Beemster GT, Inzé D, Nelissen H. Differential methylation during maize leaf growth targets developmentally regulated genes. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY. 2014;164(3):1350–64.
MLA
Candaele, Jasper, Kirin Demuynck, Douglas Mosoti, et al. “Differential Methylation During Maize Leaf Growth Targets Developmentally Regulated Genes.” PLANT PHYSIOLOGY 164.3 (2014): 1350–1364. Print.
@article{4379523,
  abstract     = {DNA methylation is an important and widespread epigenetic modification in plant genomes, mediated by DNA methyltransferases (DMTs). DNA methylation is known to play a role in genome protection, regulation of gene expression, and splicing and was previously associated with major developmental reprogramming in plants, such as vernalization and transition to flowering. Here, we show that DNA methylation also controls the growth processes of cell division and cell expansion within a growing organ. The maize (Zea mays) leaf offers a great tool to study growth processes, as the cells progressively move through the spatial gradient encompassing the division zone, transition zone, elongation zone, and mature zone. Opposite to de novo DMTs, the maintenance DMTs were transcriptionally regulated throughout the growth zone of the maize leaf, concomitant with differential CCGG methylation levels in the four zones. Surprisingly, the majority of differentially methylated sequences mapped on or close to gene bodies and not to repeat-rich loci. Moreover, especially the 59 and 39 regions of genes, which show overall low methylation levels, underwent differential methylation in a developmental context. Genes involved in processes such as chromatin remodeling, cell cycle progression, and growth regulation, were differentially methylated. The presence of differential methylation located upstream of the gene anticorrelated with transcript expression, while gene body differential methylation was unrelated to the expression level. These data indicate that DNA methylation is correlated with the decision to exit mitotic cell division and to enter cell expansion, which adds a new epigenetic level to the regulation of growth processes.},
  author       = {Candaele, Jasper and Demuynck, Kirin and Mosoti, Douglas and Beemster, Gerrit TS and Inz{\'e}, Dirk and Nelissen, Hilde},
  issn         = {0032-0889},
  journal      = {PLANT PHYSIOLOGY},
  keyword      = {GENOME,METHYLTRANSFERASES,HIGHER-PLANTS,ENDOSPERM,EPIGENETIC CONTROL,CYTOSINE METHYLATION,ZEA-MAYS,POLYMERASE-CHAIN-REACTION,ARABIDOPSIS-THALIANA,DNA METHYLATION},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {1350--1364},
  title        = {Differential methylation during maize leaf growth targets developmentally regulated genes},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.113.233312},
  volume       = {164},
  year         = {2014},
}

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