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Factors associated with vitamin D deficiency in European adolescents : the HELENA study

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Abstract
Evidence indicates low 25-hydroxyvitamin D [(25(OH)D] concentrations in European adolescents. Identification of potential determinants is therefore essential to guide public health initiatives aiming at optimizing vitamin D status across Europe. The aim of the study was to identify potential influencing factors of 25(OH)D concentrations in European adolescents aged 12.5 to 17.5 y, participating in the multi-centre cross-sectional Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study. A subset of 1,006 participants (46.8% males) was drawn from the main study. Measures of body composition, biochemical markers, socioeconomic status, dietary intake, physical activity, fitness, sleep time and vitamin D genetic polymorphism (rs1544410) were assessed. Stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis was conducted stratified by gender. In males, linear regression of 25(OH)D, suggested that (1) winter season (beta=-0.364; p<0.01), (2) higher latitudes (beta=-0.246; p<0.01), (3) BMI z-score (beta=-0.198; p<0.05) and (4) retinol concentration (beta=0.171; p<0.05) independently influenced 25(OH)D concentrations. In females, (1) winter season (beta=-0.370; p<0.01), (2) sleep time (beta=-0.231; p<0.01), (3) supplement intake (beta=0.221; p<0.05), (4) flexibility (beta=0.184; p<0.05), (5) body fat % (beta=0.201; p<0.05) (6), BMI z-score (beta=-0.272; p<0.05), (7) higher latitudes (beta=0.219; p<0.01) and (8) handgrip strength (beta=0.206; p<0.05) independently influenced 25(OH)D concentrations. Season, latitude, fitness, adiposity, sleep time and micronutrient supplementation were highly related to 25(OH)D concentrations found in European adolescents.
Keywords
insufficiency, 25(OH)D concentrations, determinants, adolescence, Europe, HEALTHY LIFE-STYLE, PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY, RISK-FACTORS, CHILDREN, FITNESS, GIRLS, NUTRITION, OBESITY, MULTICENTER, SUPPLEMENTS

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MLA
Valtueña, Jara, Marcela González-Gross, Inge Huybrechts, et al. “Factors Associated with Vitamin D Deficiency in European Adolescents : the HELENA Study.” JOURNAL OF NUTRITIONAL SCIENCE AND VITAMINOLOGY 59.3 (2013): 161–171. Print.
APA
Valtueña, Jara, González-Gross, M., Huybrechts, I., Breidenassel, C., Ferrari, M., Mouratidou, T., Gottrand, F., et al. (2013). Factors associated with vitamin D deficiency in European adolescents : the HELENA study. JOURNAL OF NUTRITIONAL SCIENCE AND VITAMINOLOGY, 59(3), 161–171.
Chicago author-date
Valtueña, Jara, Marcela González-Gross, Inge Huybrechts, Christina Breidenassel, Marika Ferrari, Theodora Mouratidou, Frederic Gottrand, et al. 2013. “Factors Associated with Vitamin D Deficiency in European Adolescents : the HELENA Study.” Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 59 (3): 161–171.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Valtueña, Jara, Marcela González-Gross, Inge Huybrechts, Christina Breidenassel, Marika Ferrari, Theodora Mouratidou, Frederic Gottrand, Jean Dallongeville, Elena Azzini, Isabelle Sioen, Sonia Gómez-Martínez, Magdalena Cuenca-García, Mathilde Kersting, Peter Stehle, Anthony Kafatos, Yannis Manios, Kurt Widhalm, and Luis A Moreno. 2013. “Factors Associated with Vitamin D Deficiency in European Adolescents : the HELENA Study.” Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 59 (3): 161–171.
Vancouver
1.
Valtueña J, González-Gross M, Huybrechts I, Breidenassel C, Ferrari M, Mouratidou T, et al. Factors associated with vitamin D deficiency in European adolescents : the HELENA study. JOURNAL OF NUTRITIONAL SCIENCE AND VITAMINOLOGY. 2013;59(3):161–71.
IEEE
[1]
J. Valtueña et al., “Factors associated with vitamin D deficiency in European adolescents : the HELENA study,” JOURNAL OF NUTRITIONAL SCIENCE AND VITAMINOLOGY, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 161–171, 2013.
@article{4374237,
  abstract     = {Evidence indicates low 25-hydroxyvitamin D [(25(OH)D] concentrations in European adolescents. Identification of potential determinants is therefore essential to guide public health initiatives aiming at optimizing vitamin D status across Europe. The aim of the study was to identify potential influencing factors of 25(OH)D concentrations in European adolescents aged 12.5 to 17.5 y, participating in the multi-centre cross-sectional Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study. A subset of 1,006 participants (46.8% males) was drawn from the main study. Measures of body composition, biochemical markers, socioeconomic status, dietary intake, physical activity, fitness, sleep time and vitamin D genetic polymorphism (rs1544410) were assessed. Stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis was conducted stratified by gender. In males, linear regression of 25(OH)D, suggested that (1) winter season (beta=-0.364; p<0.01), (2) higher latitudes (beta=-0.246; p<0.01), (3) BMI z-score (beta=-0.198; p<0.05) and (4) retinol concentration (beta=0.171; p<0.05) independently influenced 25(OH)D concentrations. In females, (1) winter season (beta=-0.370; p<0.01), (2) sleep time (beta=-0.231; p<0.01), (3) supplement intake (beta=0.221; p<0.05), (4) flexibility (beta=0.184; p<0.05), (5) body fat % (beta=0.201; p<0.05) (6), BMI z-score (beta=-0.272; p<0.05), (7) higher latitudes (beta=0.219; p<0.01) and (8) handgrip strength (beta=0.206; p<0.05) independently influenced 25(OH)D concentrations. Season, latitude, fitness, adiposity, sleep time and micronutrient supplementation were highly related to 25(OH)D concentrations found in European adolescents.},
  author       = {Valtueña, Jara and González-Gross, Marcela and Huybrechts, Inge and Breidenassel, Christina and Ferrari, Marika and Mouratidou, Theodora and Gottrand, Frederic and Dallongeville, Jean and Azzini, Elena and Sioen, Isabelle and Gómez-Martínez, Sonia and Cuenca-García, Magdalena and Kersting, Mathilde and Stehle, Peter and Kafatos, Anthony and Manios, Yannis and Widhalm, Kurt and Moreno, Luis A},
  issn         = {0301-4800},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF NUTRITIONAL SCIENCE AND VITAMINOLOGY},
  keywords     = {insufficiency,25(OH)D concentrations,determinants,adolescence,Europe,HEALTHY LIFE-STYLE,PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY,RISK-FACTORS,CHILDREN,FITNESS,GIRLS,NUTRITION,OBESITY,MULTICENTER,SUPPLEMENTS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {161--171},
  title        = {Factors associated with vitamin D deficiency in European adolescents : the HELENA study},
  volume       = {59},
  year         = {2013},
}

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