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Cardiorespiratory fitness in males, and upper limbs muscular strength in females, are positively related with 25-hydroxyvitamin D plasma concentrations in European adolescents: the HELENA study

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Abstract
Background: High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (<75 nmol/l) has been previously reported in European adolescents. Vitamin D deficiency has been related to physical fitness and adiposity but it is not clearly known whether this relationship applies to growing children and adolescents. Aim: To determine how body composition and physical fitness are related to 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) D] concentrations in European adolescents. Design: The HEalthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence-CSS study was a multi-centre cross-sectional study. Methods: Plasma 25(OH) D, body composition and physical fitness measures were obtained in 1006 European adolescents (470 males) aged 12.5-17.5 years. Stepwise regression and ANCOVA were performed by gender using 25(OH) D as dependent variable, with body composition, physical fitness as independent variables controlling for age, seasonality and latitude. Results: For males, maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) (B = 0.189) and body mass index (BMI) (B = -0.124) were independently associated with 25(OH) D concentrations (both P < 0.05). For females, handgrip strength (B = 0.168; P < 0.01) was independently associated with 25(OH) D concentrations. Those adolescents at lower BMI and high fitness score presented significant higher 25(OH) D concentrations than those at lower fitness score in the other BMI groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Cardiorespiratory fitness and upper limbs muscular strength are positively associated with 25(OH) D concentrations in male and female adolescents, respectively. Adiposity in males and low fat free mass in females are related to hypovitaminosis D. The interaction between fitness and BMI has a positive effect on 25(OH) D concentrations. Therapeutic interventions to correct the high rates of vitamin D deficiency in adolescents should consider physical fitness.
Keywords
BODY-MASS INDEX, HEALTHY LIFE-STYLE, PHYSICAL-FITNESS, D DEFICIENCY, MUSCLE FUNCTION, PENALIZED LIKELIHOOD, SKELETAL-MUSCLE, OBESE CHILDREN, PREVALENCE, VITAMIN-D STATUS

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Chicago
Valtueña, J, L Gracia-Marco, Inge Huybrechts, C Breidenassel, M Ferrari, F Gottrand, J Dallongeville, et al. 2013. “Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Males, and Upper Limbs Muscular Strength in Females, Are Positively Related with 25-hydroxyvitamin D Plasma Concentrations in European Adolescents: The HELENA Study.” Qjm-an International Journal of Medicine 106 (9): 809–821.
APA
Valtueña, J, Gracia-Marco, L., Huybrechts, I., Breidenassel, C., Ferrari, M., Gottrand, F., Dallongeville, J., et al. (2013). Cardiorespiratory fitness in males, and upper limbs muscular strength in females, are positively related with 25-hydroxyvitamin D plasma concentrations in European adolescents: the HELENA study. QJM-AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MEDICINE, 106(9), 809–821.
Vancouver
1.
Valtueña J, Gracia-Marco L, Huybrechts I, Breidenassel C, Ferrari M, Gottrand F, et al. Cardiorespiratory fitness in males, and upper limbs muscular strength in females, are positively related with 25-hydroxyvitamin D plasma concentrations in European adolescents: the HELENA study. QJM-AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MEDICINE. 2013;106(9):809–21.
MLA
Valtueña, J, L Gracia-Marco, Inge Huybrechts, et al. “Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Males, and Upper Limbs Muscular Strength in Females, Are Positively Related with 25-hydroxyvitamin D Plasma Concentrations in European Adolescents: The HELENA Study.” QJM-AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MEDICINE 106.9 (2013): 809–821. Print.
@article{4374185,
  abstract     = {Background: High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (<75 nmol/l) has been previously reported in European adolescents. Vitamin D deficiency has been related to physical fitness and adiposity but it is not clearly known whether this relationship applies to growing children and adolescents.
Aim: To determine how body composition and physical fitness are related to 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) D] concentrations in European adolescents.
Design: The HEalthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence-CSS study was a multi-centre cross-sectional study.
Methods: Plasma 25(OH) D, body composition and physical fitness measures were obtained in 1006 European adolescents (470 males) aged 12.5-17.5 years. Stepwise regression and ANCOVA were performed by gender using 25(OH) D as dependent variable, with body composition, physical fitness as independent variables controlling for age, seasonality and latitude.
Results: For males, maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) (B = 0.189) and body mass index (BMI) (B = -0.124) were independently associated with 25(OH) D concentrations (both P < 0.05). For females, handgrip strength (B = 0.168; P < 0.01) was independently associated with 25(OH) D concentrations. Those adolescents at lower BMI and high fitness score presented significant higher 25(OH) D concentrations than those at lower fitness score in the other BMI groups (P < 0.05).
Conclusions: Cardiorespiratory fitness and upper limbs muscular strength are positively associated with 25(OH) D concentrations in male and female adolescents, respectively. Adiposity in males and low fat free mass in females are related to hypovitaminosis D. The interaction between fitness and BMI has a positive effect on 25(OH) D concentrations. Therapeutic interventions to correct the high rates of vitamin D deficiency in adolescents should consider physical fitness.},
  author       = {Valtueña, J and Gracia-Marco, L and Huybrechts, Inge and Breidenassel, C and Ferrari, M and Gottrand, F and Dallongeville, J and Sioen, Isabelle and Gutierrez, A and Kersting, M and Kafatos, A and Manios, Y and Widhalm, K and Moreno, LA and González-Gross, M},
  issn         = {1460-2725},
  journal      = {QJM-AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MEDICINE},
  keywords     = {BODY-MASS INDEX,HEALTHY LIFE-STYLE,PHYSICAL-FITNESS,D DEFICIENCY,MUSCLE FUNCTION,PENALIZED LIKELIHOOD,SKELETAL-MUSCLE,OBESE CHILDREN,PREVALENCE,VITAMIN-D STATUS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {9},
  pages        = {809--821},
  title        = {Cardiorespiratory fitness in males, and upper limbs muscular strength in females, are positively related with 25-hydroxyvitamin D plasma concentrations in European adolescents: the HELENA study},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/qjmed/hct089},
  volume       = {106},
  year         = {2013},
}

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