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Feasibility of following up gamma-hydroxybutyric acid concentrations in sodium oxybate (Xyrem®)-treated narcoleptic patients using dried blood spot sampling at home : an exploratory study

Ann-Sofie Ingels (UGent) , Katrien Hertegonne (UGent) , Willy Lambert (UGent) and Christophe Stove (UGent)
(2013) CNS DRUGS. 27(3). p.233-237
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Organization
Abstract
Background: Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), well known as a party drug, especially in Europe, is also legally used (sodium oxybate, Xyrem (R)) to treat a rare sleep disorder, narcolepsy with cataplexy. This exploratory study was set up to measure GHB concentrations in dried blood spots (DBS) collected by narcoleptic patients treated with sodium oxybate. Intra- and inter-individual variation in clinical effects following sodium oxybate administration has been reported. The use of DBS as a sampling technique, which is stated to be easy and convenient, may provide a better insight into GHB concentrations following sodium oxybate intake in a real-life setting. Objective The aim was twofold: evaluation of the applicability of a recently developed DBS-based gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC MS) method, and of the feasibility of the sampling technique in an ambulant setting. Methods: Seven narcoleptic patients being treated with sodium oxybate at the Department for Respiratory Diseases of Ghent University Hospital were asked to collect DBS approximately 20 min after the first sodium oxybate (Xyrem (R); UCB Pharma Ltd, Brussels, Belgium) intake on a maximum of 7 consecutive days. Using an automatic lancet, patients pricked their fingertip and, after wiping off the first drop of blood, subsequent drops were collected on a DBS card. The DBS cards were sent to the laboratory by regular mail and, before analysis, were visually inspected to record DBS quality (large enough, symmetrically spread on the filter paper with even colouration on both sides of the filter paper). Results: Of the seven patients, three patients succeeded to collect five series of DBS, one patient decided to cease participation because of nausea, one was lost during follow-up and two patients started falling asleep almost immediately after the intake of sodium oxybate. Analysing the DBS in duplicate resulted in acceptable within-DBS card precision. DBS with acceptable quality were obtained by patients without supervision. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate the acceptable precision of the complete procedure, from sampling at home to quantitative analysis in the laboratory. Given the intra-and inter-individual variability in clinical effects seen with sodium oxybate, the easy adaptation of DBS sampling opens the possibility of following up GHB concentrations in patients in real-life settings in future studies.
Keywords
Sodium Oxybate, Dried Blood Spot Testing, gamma-Hydroxybutyrate, Narcolepsy

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Chicago
Ingels, Ann-Sofie, Katrien Hertegonne, Willy Lambert, and Christophe Stove. 2013. “Feasibility of Following up Gamma-hydroxybutyric Acid Concentrations in Sodium Oxybate (Xyrem®)-treated Narcoleptic Patients Using Dried Blood Spot Sampling at Home : an Exploratory Study.” Cns Drugs 27 (3): 233–237.
APA
Ingels, A.-S., Hertegonne, K., Lambert, W., & Stove, C. (2013). Feasibility of following up gamma-hydroxybutyric acid concentrations in sodium oxybate (Xyrem®)-treated narcoleptic patients using dried blood spot sampling at home : an exploratory study. CNS DRUGS, 27(3), 233–237.
Vancouver
1.
Ingels A-S, Hertegonne K, Lambert W, Stove C. Feasibility of following up gamma-hydroxybutyric acid concentrations in sodium oxybate (Xyrem®)-treated narcoleptic patients using dried blood spot sampling at home : an exploratory study. CNS DRUGS. 2013;27(3):233–7.
MLA
Ingels, Ann-Sofie, Katrien Hertegonne, Willy Lambert, et al. “Feasibility of Following up Gamma-hydroxybutyric Acid Concentrations in Sodium Oxybate (Xyrem®)-treated Narcoleptic Patients Using Dried Blood Spot Sampling at Home : an Exploratory Study.” CNS DRUGS 27.3 (2013): 233–237. Print.
@article{4362152,
  abstract     = {Background: Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), well known as a party drug, especially in Europe, is also legally used (sodium oxybate, Xyrem (R)) to treat a rare sleep disorder, narcolepsy with cataplexy. This exploratory study was set up to measure GHB concentrations in dried blood spots (DBS) collected by narcoleptic patients treated with sodium oxybate. Intra- and inter-individual variation in clinical effects following sodium oxybate administration has been reported. The use of DBS as a sampling technique, which is stated to be easy and convenient, may provide a better insight into GHB concentrations following sodium oxybate intake in a real-life setting. Objective The aim was twofold: evaluation of the applicability of a recently developed DBS-based gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC MS) method, and of the feasibility of the sampling technique in an ambulant setting.
Methods: Seven narcoleptic patients being treated with sodium oxybate at the Department for Respiratory Diseases of Ghent University Hospital were asked to collect DBS approximately 20 min after the first sodium oxybate (Xyrem (R); UCB Pharma Ltd, Brussels, Belgium) intake on a maximum of 7 consecutive days. Using an automatic lancet, patients pricked their fingertip and, after wiping off the first drop of blood, subsequent drops were collected on a DBS card. The DBS cards were sent to the laboratory by regular mail and, before analysis, were visually inspected to record DBS quality (large enough, symmetrically spread on the filter paper with even colouration on both sides of the filter paper).
Results: Of the seven patients, three patients succeeded to collect five series of DBS, one patient decided to cease participation because of nausea, one was lost during follow-up and two patients started falling asleep almost immediately after the intake of sodium oxybate. Analysing the DBS in duplicate resulted in acceptable within-DBS card precision. DBS with acceptable quality were obtained by patients without supervision.
Conclusion: Our results demonstrate the acceptable precision of the complete procedure, from sampling at home to quantitative analysis in the laboratory. Given the intra-and inter-individual variability in clinical effects seen with sodium oxybate, the easy adaptation of DBS sampling opens the possibility of following up GHB concentrations in patients in real-life settings in future studies.},
  author       = {Ingels, Ann-Sofie and Hertegonne, Katrien and Lambert, Willy and Stove, Christophe},
  issn         = {1172-7047},
  journal      = {CNS DRUGS},
  keyword      = {Sodium Oxybate,Dried Blood Spot Testing,gamma-Hydroxybutyrate,Narcolepsy},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {233--237},
  title        = {Feasibility of following up gamma-hydroxybutyric acid concentrations in sodium oxybate (Xyrem{\textregistered})-treated narcoleptic patients using dried blood spot sampling at home : an exploratory study},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40263-013-0050-5},
  volume       = {27},
  year         = {2013},
}

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