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Transmission dynamics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pigs

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Abstract
From the mid-2000s on, numerous studies have shown that methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), renowned as human pathogen, has a reservoir in pigs and other livestock. In Europe and North America, clonal complex (CC) 398 appears to be the predominant lineage involved. Especially worrisome is its capacity to contaminate humans in close contact with affected animals. Indeed, the typical multi-resistant phenotype of MRSA CC398 and its observed ability of easily acquiring genetic material suggests that MRSA CC398 strains with an increased virulence potential may emerge, for which few therapeutic options would remain. This questions the need to implement interventions to control the presence and spread of MRSA CC398 among pigs. MRSA CC398 shows a high but not fully understood transmission potential in the pig population and is able to persist within that population. Although direct contact is probably the main route for MRSA transmission between pigs, also environmental contamination, the presence of other livestock, the herd size, and farm management are factors that may be involved in the dissemination of MRSA CC398. The current review aims at summarizing the research that has so far been done on the transmission dynamics and risk factors for introduction and persistence of MRSA CC398 in farms.
Keywords
MRSA, ST398, pigs, transmission risk factors, transmission routes, transmission pig models, LIVESTOCK-ASSOCIATED MRSA, VALENTINE LEUKOCIDIN GENES, SEQUENCE TYPE 398, METHICILLIN-RESISTANT, ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE, NASAL CARRIAGE, SLAUGHTER PIGS, RISK-FACTORS, DECREASED SUSCEPTIBILITY, MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION

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Chicago
Crombé, Florence, M Angeles Argudin, Wannes Vanderhaeghen, Katleen Hermans, Freddy Haesebrouck, and Patrick Butaye. 2013. “Transmission Dynamics of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus in Pigs.” Frontiers in Microbiology 4.
APA
Crombé, F., Argudin, M. A., Vanderhaeghen, W., Hermans, K., Haesebrouck, F., & Butaye, P. (2013). Transmission dynamics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pigs. FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY, 4.
Vancouver
1.
Crombé F, Argudin MA, Vanderhaeghen W, Hermans K, Haesebrouck F, Butaye P. Transmission dynamics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pigs. FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY. 2013;4.
MLA
Crombé, Florence, M Angeles Argudin, Wannes Vanderhaeghen, et al. “Transmission Dynamics of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus in Pigs.” FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY 4 (2013): n. pag. Print.
@article{4361672,
  abstract     = {From the mid-2000s on, numerous studies have shown that methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), renowned as human pathogen, has a reservoir in pigs and other livestock. In Europe and North America, clonal complex (CC) 398 appears to be the predominant lineage involved. Especially worrisome is its capacity to contaminate humans in close contact with affected animals. Indeed, the typical multi-resistant phenotype of MRSA CC398 and its observed ability of easily acquiring genetic material suggests that MRSA CC398 strains with an increased virulence potential may emerge, for which few therapeutic options would remain. This questions the need to implement interventions to control the presence and spread of MRSA CC398 among pigs. MRSA CC398 shows a high but not fully understood transmission potential in the pig population and is able to persist within that population. Although direct contact is probably the main route for MRSA transmission between pigs, also environmental contamination, the presence of other livestock, the herd size, and farm management are factors that may be involved in the dissemination of MRSA CC398. The current review aims at summarizing the research that has so far been done on the transmission dynamics and risk factors for introduction and persistence of MRSA CC398 in farms.},
  articleno    = {57},
  author       = {Cromb{\'e}, Florence and Argudin, M Angeles and Vanderhaeghen, Wannes and Hermans, Katleen and Haesebrouck, Freddy and Butaye, Patrick},
  issn         = {1664-302X},
  journal      = {FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY},
  keyword      = {MRSA,ST398,pigs,transmission risk factors,transmission routes,transmission pig models,LIVESTOCK-ASSOCIATED MRSA,VALENTINE LEUKOCIDIN GENES,SEQUENCE TYPE 398,METHICILLIN-RESISTANT,ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE,NASAL CARRIAGE,SLAUGHTER PIGS,RISK-FACTORS,DECREASED SUSCEPTIBILITY,MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {21},
  title        = {Transmission dynamics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pigs},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2013.00057},
  volume       = {4},
  year         = {2013},
}

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