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Dark chocolate's compositional effects revealed by oscillatory rheology

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Abstract
In this study, two types of oscillatory shear rheology are applied on dark chocolate with varying volume fraction, particle size distribution, and soy lecithin concentration. The first, a conventional strain sweep, allows for the separation of the elastic and viscous properties during the yielding. The second, a constant strain rate sweep, where the strain rate amplitude is fixed as the frequency is varied, is analyzed to obtain Lissajous curves, dissipated energy, and higher order nonlinear contributions. It is shown that chocolate exhibits complex nonlinear behavior, namely shear thinning, shear thickening, and strain stiffening. The effects on this behavior related to volume fraction, particle size distribution, and lecithin concentration are investigated, and comparison with simple monodisperse hard-sphere suspensions is made.
Keywords
MILK CHOCOLATE, SHEAR, FLOW PROPERTIES, YIELD-STRESS FLUIDS, PARTICLE-SIZE DISTRIBUTION, Stress decomposition, Flow behavior, LAOS, Viscoelastic properties, Yielding, Chocolate, Oscillatory rheology

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Chicago
van der Vaart, Kasper, Frédéric Depypere, Veerle De Graef, Peter Schall, Abdoulaye Fall, Daniel Bonn, and Koen Dewettinck. 2013. “Dark Chocolate’s Compositional Effects Revealed by Oscillatory Rheology.” European Food Research and Technology 236 (6): 931–942.
APA
van der Vaart, K., Depypere, F., De Graef, V., Schall, P., Fall, A., Bonn, D., & Dewettinck, K. (2013). Dark chocolate’s compositional effects revealed by oscillatory rheology. EUROPEAN FOOD RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY, 236(6), 931–942.
Vancouver
1.
van der Vaart K, Depypere F, De Graef V, Schall P, Fall A, Bonn D, et al. Dark chocolate’s compositional effects revealed by oscillatory rheology. EUROPEAN FOOD RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY. 2013;236(6):931–42.
MLA
van der Vaart, Kasper, Frédéric Depypere, Veerle De Graef, et al. “Dark Chocolate’s Compositional Effects Revealed by Oscillatory Rheology.” EUROPEAN FOOD RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY 236.6 (2013): 931–942. Print.
@article{4361019,
  abstract     = {In this study, two types of oscillatory shear rheology are applied on dark chocolate with varying volume fraction, particle size distribution, and soy lecithin concentration. The first, a conventional strain sweep, allows for the separation of the elastic and viscous properties during the yielding. The second, a constant strain rate sweep, where the strain rate amplitude is fixed as the frequency is varied, is analyzed to obtain Lissajous curves, dissipated energy, and higher order nonlinear contributions. It is shown that chocolate exhibits complex nonlinear behavior, namely shear thinning, shear thickening, and strain stiffening. The effects on this behavior related to volume fraction, particle size distribution, and lecithin concentration are investigated, and comparison with simple monodisperse hard-sphere suspensions is made.},
  author       = {van der Vaart, Kasper and Depypere, Fr{\'e}d{\'e}ric and De Graef, Veerle and Schall, Peter and Fall, Abdoulaye and Bonn, Daniel and Dewettinck, Koen},
  issn         = {1438-2377},
  journal      = {EUROPEAN FOOD RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY},
  keyword      = {MILK CHOCOLATE,SHEAR,FLOW PROPERTIES,YIELD-STRESS FLUIDS,PARTICLE-SIZE DISTRIBUTION,Stress decomposition,Flow behavior,LAOS,Viscoelastic properties,Yielding,Chocolate,Oscillatory rheology},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {6},
  pages        = {931--942},
  title        = {Dark chocolate's compositional effects revealed by oscillatory rheology},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00217-013-1949-2},
  volume       = {236},
  year         = {2013},
}

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