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Ultrasonic assessment of mucosal thickness around implants: validity, reproducibility, and stability of connective tissue grafts at the buccal aspect

Aryan Eghbali (UGent) , Hugo De Bruyn (UGent) , Jan Cosyn (UGent) , Ingrid Kerckaert (UGent) and Tom Van Hoof (UGent)
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Organization
Abstract
Purpose: (1) To assess validity and reproducibility of mucosal thickness (MT) registration by means of an ultrasonic device and (2) to determine MT stability of connective tissue grafts (CTG) when applied at the buccal aspect of single implants demonstrating alveolar process deficiency. Materials and Methods: For the validity assessment, 4 human cadaver edentulous maxillae were used to determine MT at 100 different sites. Soft tissue thickness as recorded with the ultrasonic device was compared to MT as registered with Micro-CT, taking the latter as gold standard. For the reproducibility assessment, 50 duplicate ultrasonic registrations were used. For the clinical part, 10 non-smoking patients with a single implant were included. All demonstrated alveolar process deficiency and had been provided with a provisional screw-retained crown at the time of inclusion. Following an intra-sulcular incision at the buccal aspect, a CTG was inserted to thicken soft tissues. MT was assessed at t0 (before CTG), t1 (immediately after CTG), t2 (suture removal), t3 (permanent crown installation) and t4 (9 months after CTG). Results: There was a strong correlation between ultrasonic and Micro-CT measurements (r=0.89, p<0.001). However, the former significantly underrated MT by 0.13 mm (p=0.030). There was a strong correlation between duplicate ultrasonic recordings (r=0.99, p<0.001). Seven females and 3 males were included in the clinical study with a mean age of 52. MT significantly increased by 0.92 mm between t0 and t1 (p=0.005). Between t3 and t4 there was a slight, yet significant decrease of 0.15 mm (p=0.047). Conclusion: The ultrasonic device can be used as a non-invasive, reliable and reproducible method to evaluate MT. Using this technology around single implants demonstrated that CTG may substantially thicken the peri-implant mucosa with acceptable stability over a 9-month period.
Keywords
Validity and reproducibility, Mucosal thickness, Dental implant, Ultrasonic thickness determination, Single tooth, Connective tissue graft, PALATAL MASTICATORY MUCOSA, CONTROLLED CLINICAL-TRIAL, ANTERIOR MAXILLA, RIDGE AUGMENTATION, GINGIVA, AESTHETICS, FEATURES, SITES, HARD

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Chicago
Eghbali, Aryan, Hugo De Bruyn, Jan Cosyn, Ingrid Kerckaert, and Tom Van Hoof. 2016. “Ultrasonic Assessment of Mucosal Thickness Around Implants: Validity, Reproducibility, and Stability of Connective Tissue Grafts at the Buccal Aspect.” Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research 18 (1): 51–61.
APA
Eghbali, A., De Bruyn, H., Cosyn, J., Kerckaert, I., & Van Hoof, T. (2016). Ultrasonic assessment of mucosal thickness around implants: validity, reproducibility, and stability of connective tissue grafts at the buccal aspect. CLINICAL IMPLANT DENTISTRY AND RELATED RESEARCH, 18(1), 51–61.
Vancouver
1.
Eghbali A, De Bruyn H, Cosyn J, Kerckaert I, Van Hoof T. Ultrasonic assessment of mucosal thickness around implants: validity, reproducibility, and stability of connective tissue grafts at the buccal aspect. CLINICAL IMPLANT DENTISTRY AND RELATED RESEARCH. 2016;18(1):51–61.
MLA
Eghbali, Aryan, Hugo De Bruyn, Jan Cosyn, et al. “Ultrasonic Assessment of Mucosal Thickness Around Implants: Validity, Reproducibility, and Stability of Connective Tissue Grafts at the Buccal Aspect.” CLINICAL IMPLANT DENTISTRY AND RELATED RESEARCH 18.1 (2016): 51–61. Print.
@article{4360017,
  abstract     = {Purpose: (1) To assess validity and reproducibility of mucosal thickness (MT) registration by means of an ultrasonic device and (2) to determine MT stability of connective tissue grafts (CTG) when applied at the buccal aspect of single implants demonstrating alveolar process deficiency.
Materials and Methods: For the validity assessment, 4 human cadaver edentulous maxillae were used to determine MT at 100 different sites. Soft tissue thickness as recorded with the ultrasonic device was compared to MT as registered with Micro-CT, taking the latter as gold standard. For the reproducibility assessment, 50 duplicate ultrasonic registrations were used. For the clinical part, 10 non-smoking patients with a single implant were included. All demonstrated alveolar process deficiency and had been provided with a provisional screw-retained crown at the time of inclusion. Following an intra-sulcular incision at the buccal aspect, a CTG was inserted to thicken soft tissues. MT was assessed at t0 (before CTG), t1 (immediately after CTG), t2 (suture removal), t3 (permanent crown installation) and t4 (9 months after CTG).
Results: There was a strong correlation between ultrasonic and Micro-CT measurements (r=0.89, p{\textlangle}0.001). However, the former significantly underrated MT by 0.13 mm (p=0.030). There was a strong correlation between duplicate ultrasonic recordings (r=0.99, p{\textlangle}0.001). Seven females and 3 males were included in the clinical study with a mean age of 52. MT significantly increased by 0.92 mm between t0 and t1 (p=0.005). Between t3 and t4 there was a slight, yet significant decrease of 0.15 mm (p=0.047).
Conclusion: The ultrasonic device can be used as a non-invasive, reliable and reproducible method to evaluate MT. Using this technology around single implants demonstrated that CTG may substantially thicken the peri-implant mucosa with acceptable stability over a 9-month period.},
  author       = {Eghbali, Aryan and De Bruyn, Hugo and Cosyn, Jan and Kerckaert, Ingrid and Van Hoof, Tom},
  issn         = {1523-0899},
  journal      = {CLINICAL IMPLANT DENTISTRY AND RELATED RESEARCH},
  keyword      = {Validity and reproducibility,Mucosal thickness,Dental implant,Ultrasonic thickness determination,Single tooth,Connective tissue graft,PALATAL MASTICATORY MUCOSA,CONTROLLED CLINICAL-TRIAL,ANTERIOR MAXILLA,RIDGE AUGMENTATION,GINGIVA,AESTHETICS,FEATURES,SITES,HARD},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {51--61},
  title        = {Ultrasonic assessment of mucosal thickness around implants: validity, reproducibility, and stability of connective tissue grafts at the buccal aspect},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cid.12245},
  volume       = {18},
  year         = {2016},
}

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