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The influence of dairy consumption and physical activity on ultrasound bone measurements in Flemish children

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Abstract
The study's aim was to analyse whether children's bone status, assessed by calcaneal ultrasound measurements, is influenced by dairy consumption and objectively measured physical activity (PA). Moreover, the interaction between dairy consumption and PA on bone mass was studied. Participants of this cross-sectional study were 306 Flemish children (6-12 years). Body composition was measured with air displacement plethysmography (BodPod), dairy consumption with a Food Frequency Questionnaire, PA with an accelerometer (only in 234 of the 306 children) and bone mass with quantitative ultrasound, quantifying speed of sound (SOS), broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and Stiffness Index (SI). Regression analyses were used to study the associations between dairy consumption, PA, SOS, BUA and SI. Total dairy consumption and non-cheese dairy consumption were positively associated with SOS and SI, but no significant association could be demonstrated with BUA. In contrast, milk consumption, disregarding other dairy products, had no significant effect on calcaneal bone measurements. PA [vigorous PA, moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and counts per minute] was positively associated and sedentary time was negatively associated with BUA and SI, but no significant influence on SOS could be detected. Dairy consumption and PA (sedentary time and MVPA) did not show any interaction influencing bone measurements. In conclusion, even at young age, PA and dairy consumption positively influence bone mass. Promoting PA and dairy consumption in young children may, therefore, maximize peak bone mass, an important protective factor against osteoporosis later in life.
Keywords
Bone, Quantitative ultrasound (QUS), Children, Dairy consumption, Physical activity, OF-THE-ART, MINERAL DENSITY, QUANTITATIVE ULTRASOUND, BODY-COMPOSITION, SCHOOL-CHILDREN, LIFE-STYLE, CALCIUM INTAKE, MASS, ADOLESCENTS, HEALTH

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Chicago
De Smet, Stephanie, Nathalie Michels, Carolien Polfliet, Sara D’Haese, Inge Roggen, Stefaan De Henauw, and Isabelle Sioen. 2015. “The Influence of Dairy Consumption and Physical Activity on Ultrasound Bone Measurements in Flemish Children.” Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism 33 (2): 192–200.
APA
De Smet, Stephanie, Michels, N., Polfliet, C., D’Haese, S., Roggen, I., De Henauw, S., & Sioen, I. (2015). The influence of dairy consumption and physical activity on ultrasound bone measurements in Flemish children. JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL METABOLISM, 33(2), 192–200.
Vancouver
1.
De Smet S, Michels N, Polfliet C, D’Haese S, Roggen I, De Henauw S, et al. The influence of dairy consumption and physical activity on ultrasound bone measurements in Flemish children. JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL METABOLISM. 2015;33(2):192–200.
MLA
De Smet, Stephanie, Nathalie Michels, Carolien Polfliet, et al. “The Influence of Dairy Consumption and Physical Activity on Ultrasound Bone Measurements in Flemish Children.” JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL METABOLISM 33.2 (2015): 192–200. Print.
@article{4347212,
  abstract     = {The study's aim was to analyse whether children's bone status, assessed by calcaneal ultrasound measurements, is influenced by dairy consumption and objectively measured physical activity (PA). Moreover, the interaction between dairy consumption and PA on bone mass was studied. Participants of this cross-sectional study were 306 Flemish children (6-12 years). Body composition was measured with air displacement plethysmography (BodPod), dairy consumption with a Food Frequency Questionnaire, PA with an accelerometer (only in 234 of the 306 children) and bone mass with quantitative ultrasound, quantifying speed of sound (SOS), broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and Stiffness Index (SI). Regression analyses were used to study the associations between dairy consumption, PA, SOS, BUA and SI. Total dairy consumption and non-cheese dairy consumption were positively associated with SOS and SI, but no significant association could be demonstrated with BUA. In contrast, milk consumption, disregarding other dairy products, had no significant effect on calcaneal bone measurements. PA [vigorous PA, moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and counts per minute] was positively associated and sedentary time was negatively associated with BUA and SI, but no significant influence on SOS could be detected. Dairy consumption and PA (sedentary time and MVPA) did not show any interaction influencing bone measurements. In conclusion, even at young age, PA and dairy consumption positively influence bone mass. Promoting PA and dairy consumption in young children may, therefore, maximize peak bone mass, an important protective factor against osteoporosis later in life.},
  author       = {De Smet, Stephanie and Michels, Nathalie and Polfliet, Carolien and D'Haese, Sara and Roggen, Inge and De Henauw, Stefaan and Sioen, Isabelle},
  issn         = {0914-8779},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL METABOLISM},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {192--200},
  title        = {The influence of dairy consumption and physical activity on ultrasound bone measurements in Flemish children},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00774-014-0577-7},
  volume       = {33},
  year         = {2015},
}

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