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Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in women of child-bearing age in central Ethiopia

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Abstract
Background: Toxoplasma gondii infections during pregnancy can result in abortion or congenital defects. Prevalence and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in women of child-bearing age in Ethiopia are unknown. The current study was conducted with the objectives of estimating the seroprevalence and potential risk factors in acquiring T. gondii infection by women of child-bearing age in Central Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2011 to September 2011. Sera of 425 women were analyzed by indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A questionnaire survey was administered for all study participants to gather information on risk factors. Results: The study revealed that anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were detected in 81.4% of the samples of which 78.4% were positive for only IgG and 3.06% positive for both IgG and IgM antibodies. Seroprevalence of IgM antibodies to T. gondii (4.0%, 95% CI: 2.14, 5.86) was suggestive of recent infections. Of the 213 pregnant women 9 (4.2 %) were IgM reactive. Out of 17 potential risk factors investigated, univariate logistic regression showed significant association of T. gondii infection with study area, age, pregnancy status, raw vegetable consumption, source of water, presence of cats at home, contact with cats, HIV status and precaution during cats' feces cleaning (P = 0.05). The final logistic regression model revealed that: the probability of acquiring T. gondii infection by women of Debre-Zeit was 4.46 times (95% CI of adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.67, 11.89; P = 0.003) higher compared to women of Ambo, pregnant women were twice (95% CI aOR: 1.13, 3.59; P = 0.018) more likely to be seropositive than non-pregnant women and women who consume raw vegetable were at increased risk of infection (aOR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.03, 4.78; P = 0.043) than women who didn't consume. Conclusion: The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in women of child-bearing age in Central Ethiopia is high. Study area, pregnancy and raw vegetable consumption are risk factors to acquire T. gondii infection. Educational program, antenatal screening of pregnant women and further epidemiological studies to uncover the economic and health impact of toxoplasmosis are suggested.
Keywords
RISK-FACTORS, Toxoplasma gondii, WATER, DIAGNOSIS, PREVALENCE, Seroprevalence, Risk factors, Cross-sectional, Central Ethiopia, ELISA, UNITED-STATES, SEROPREVALENCE, PREGNANT-WOMEN, ADDIS-ABABA, SEROLOGICAL SURVEY

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Chicago
Gebremedhin, Endrias Zewdu, Anteneh Hailu Abebe, Tesfaye Sisay Tessema, Kassu Desta Tullu, Girmay Medhin, Maria Vitale, Vincenzo Di Marco, Eric Cox, and Pierre Dorny. 2013. “Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma Gondii Infection in Women of Child-bearing Age in Central Ethiopia.” Bmc Infectious Diseases 13.
APA
Gebremedhin, E. Z., Abebe, A. H., Tessema, T. S., Tullu, K. D., Medhin, G., Vitale, M., Di Marco, V., et al. (2013). Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in women of child-bearing age in central Ethiopia. BMC INFECTIOUS DISEASES, 13.
Vancouver
1.
Gebremedhin EZ, Abebe AH, Tessema TS, Tullu KD, Medhin G, Vitale M, et al. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in women of child-bearing age in central Ethiopia. BMC INFECTIOUS DISEASES. 2013;13.
MLA
Gebremedhin, Endrias Zewdu, Anteneh Hailu Abebe, Tesfaye Sisay Tessema, et al. “Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma Gondii Infection in Women of Child-bearing Age in Central Ethiopia.” BMC INFECTIOUS DISEASES 13 (2013): n. pag. Print.
@article{4346142,
  abstract     = {Background: Toxoplasma gondii infections during pregnancy can result in abortion or congenital defects. Prevalence and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in women of child-bearing age in Ethiopia are unknown. The current study was conducted with the objectives of estimating the seroprevalence and potential risk factors in acquiring T. gondii infection by women of child-bearing age in Central Ethiopia.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2011 to September 2011. Sera of 425 women were analyzed by indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A questionnaire survey was administered for all study participants to gather information on risk factors.
Results: The study revealed that anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were detected in 81.4\% of the samples of which 78.4\% were positive for only IgG and 3.06\% positive for both IgG and IgM antibodies. Seroprevalence of IgM antibodies to T. gondii (4.0\%, 95\% CI: 2.14, 5.86) was suggestive of recent infections. Of the 213 pregnant women 9 (4.2 \%) were IgM reactive. Out of 17 potential risk factors investigated, univariate logistic regression showed significant association of T. gondii infection with study area, age, pregnancy status, raw vegetable consumption, source of water, presence of cats at home, contact with cats, HIV status and precaution during cats' feces cleaning (P = 0.05). The final logistic regression model revealed that: the probability of acquiring T. gondii infection by women of Debre-Zeit was 4.46 times (95\% CI of adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.67, 11.89; P = 0.003) higher compared to women of Ambo, pregnant women were twice (95\% CI aOR: 1.13, 3.59; P = 0.018) more likely to be seropositive than non-pregnant women and women who consume raw vegetable were at increased risk of infection (aOR = 2.21, 95\% CI: 1.03, 4.78; P = 0.043) than women who didn't consume.
Conclusion: The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in women of child-bearing age in Central Ethiopia is high. Study area, pregnancy and raw vegetable consumption are risk factors to acquire T. gondii infection. Educational program, antenatal screening of pregnant women and further epidemiological studies to uncover the economic and health impact of toxoplasmosis are suggested.},
  articleno    = {101},
  author       = {Gebremedhin, Endrias Zewdu and Abebe, Anteneh Hailu and Tessema, Tesfaye Sisay and Tullu, Kassu Desta and Medhin, Girmay and Vitale, Maria and Di Marco, Vincenzo and Cox, Eric and Dorny, Pierre},
  issn         = {1471-2334},
  journal      = {BMC INFECTIOUS DISEASES},
  keyword      = {RISK-FACTORS,Toxoplasma gondii,WATER,DIAGNOSIS,PREVALENCE,Seroprevalence,Risk factors,Cross-sectional,Central Ethiopia,ELISA,UNITED-STATES,SEROPREVALENCE,PREGNANT-WOMEN,ADDIS-ABABA,SEROLOGICAL SURVEY},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {9},
  title        = {Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in women of child-bearing age in central Ethiopia},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2334-13-101},
  volume       = {13},
  year         = {2013},
}

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