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Development and validation of a gas chromatography-flame ionization detection method for the determination of epoxy fatty acids in food matrices

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Abstract
A reliable and suitable method for the determination of epoxy fatty acids in various food matrices based on the Bligh and Dyer lipid extraction procedure was developed and validated. The method involves use of a methylated epoxy fatty acid as internal standards (IS), extraction of the analytes from the matrices followed by room temperature methylation, a three step SPE separation of the FAMEs and detection with gas chromatography flame ionisation detection (GC-FID). The method was validated in four different food matrices chosen as model systems namely, vegetable oils, unprocessed meat, fried potato crisps and infant formula. The extraction technique allows the method to be applied for routine analysis of a large amount of samples. Intra-day repeatability ranged from 1 to 19 % and inter-day reproducibility ranged from 2 to 9 %. The limit of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 3.32 to 20.47 µg g-1of sample with recoveries ranging from 94 to 115 %. The results verify the accuracy and reproducibility of the analytical technique and its ability to provide reliable quantification of epoxy fatty acids. Finally, levels of epoxy fatty acids in several food products on Belgian market were screened and presented.
Keywords
SOLVENT, OXIDATION, FRYING OILS, QUANTITATION, SUNFLOWER OILS, LIPID EXTRACTION, MASS-SPECTROMETRY, LIQUID-CHROMATOGRAPHY, epoxy fatty acids, Lipid oxidation, transesterification, fatty acid methyl esters, Bligh and Dyer, 9, 10-EPOXY-12-OCTADECENOATE, DICHLOROMETHANE

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MLA
Mubiru, Edward, Kshitij Shrestha, Antonios Papastergiadis, et al. “Development and Validation of a Gas Chromatography-flame Ionization Detection Method for the Determination of Epoxy Fatty Acids in Food Matrices.” JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY 62.13 (2014): 2982–2988. Print.
APA
Mubiru, E., Shrestha, K., Papastergiadis, A., & De Meulenaer, B. (2014). Development and validation of a gas chromatography-flame ionization detection method for the determination of epoxy fatty acids in food matrices. JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY, 62(13), 2982–2988.
Chicago author-date
Mubiru, Edward, Kshitij Shrestha, Antonios Papastergiadis, and Bruno De Meulenaer. 2014. “Development and Validation of a Gas Chromatography-flame Ionization Detection Method for the Determination of Epoxy Fatty Acids in Food Matrices.” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 62 (13): 2982–2988.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Mubiru, Edward, Kshitij Shrestha, Antonios Papastergiadis, and Bruno De Meulenaer. 2014. “Development and Validation of a Gas Chromatography-flame Ionization Detection Method for the Determination of Epoxy Fatty Acids in Food Matrices.” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 62 (13): 2982–2988.
Vancouver
1.
Mubiru E, Shrestha K, Papastergiadis A, De Meulenaer B. Development and validation of a gas chromatography-flame ionization detection method for the determination of epoxy fatty acids in food matrices. JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY. 2014;62(13):2982–8.
IEEE
[1]
E. Mubiru, K. Shrestha, A. Papastergiadis, and B. De Meulenaer, “Development and validation of a gas chromatography-flame ionization detection method for the determination of epoxy fatty acids in food matrices,” JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY, vol. 62, no. 13, pp. 2982–2988, 2014.
@article{4328825,
  abstract     = {A reliable and suitable method for the determination of epoxy fatty acids in various food matrices based on the Bligh and Dyer lipid extraction procedure was developed and validated. The method involves use of a methylated epoxy fatty acid as internal standards (IS), extraction of the analytes from the matrices followed by room temperature methylation, a three step SPE separation of the FAMEs and detection with gas chromatography flame ionisation detection (GC-FID). The method was validated in four different food matrices chosen as model systems namely, vegetable oils, unprocessed meat, fried potato crisps and infant formula. The extraction technique allows the method to be applied for routine analysis of a large amount of samples. Intra-day repeatability ranged from 1 to 19 % and inter-day reproducibility ranged from 2 to 9 %. The limit of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 3.32 to 20.47 µg g-1of sample with recoveries ranging from 94 to 115 %. The results verify the accuracy and reproducibility of the analytical technique and its ability to provide reliable quantification of epoxy fatty acids. Finally, levels of epoxy fatty acids in several food products on Belgian market were screened and presented.},
  author       = {Mubiru, Edward and Shrestha, Kshitij and Papastergiadis, Antonios and De Meulenaer, Bruno},
  issn         = {0021-8561},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY},
  keywords     = {SOLVENT,OXIDATION,FRYING OILS,QUANTITATION,SUNFLOWER OILS,LIPID EXTRACTION,MASS-SPECTROMETRY,LIQUID-CHROMATOGRAPHY,epoxy fatty acids,Lipid oxidation,transesterification,fatty acid methyl esters,Bligh and Dyer,9,10-EPOXY-12-OCTADECENOATE,DICHLOROMETHANE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {13},
  pages        = {2982--2988},
  title        = {Development and validation of a gas chromatography-flame ionization detection method for the determination of epoxy fatty acids in food matrices},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf405664c},
  volume       = {62},
  year         = {2014},
}

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