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Improvement of attenuation correction in time-of-flight PET/MR imaging with a positron-emitting source

(2014) JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE. 55(2). p.329-336
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Abstract
Quantitative PET imaging relies on accurate attenuation correction. Recently, there has been growing interest in combining state-of-the-art PET systems with MR imaging in a sequential or fully integrated setup. As CT becomes unavailable for these systems, an alternative approach to the CT-based reconstruction of attenuation coefficients (μ values) at 511 keV must be found. Deriving μ values directly from MR images is difficult because MR signals are related to the proton density and relaxation properties of tissue. Therefore, most research groups focus on segmentation or atlas registration techniques. Although studies have shown that these methods provide viable solutions in particular applications, some major drawbacks limit their use in whole-body PET/MR. Previously, we used an annulus-shaped PET transmission source inside the field of view of a PET scanner to measure attenuation coefficients at 511 keV. In this work, we describe the use of this method in studies of patients with the sequential time-of-flight (TOF) PET/MR scanner installed at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY. Five human PET/MR and CT datasets were acquired. The transmission-based attenuation correction method was compared with conventional CT-based attenuation correction and the 3-segment, MR-based attenuation correction available on the TOF PET/MR imaging scanner. RESULTS: The transmission-based method overcame most problems related to the MR-based technique, such as truncation artifacts of the arms, segmentation artifacts in the lungs, and imaging of cortical bone. Additionally, the TOF capabilities of the PET detectors allowed the simultaneous acquisition of transmission and emission data. Compared with the MR-based approach, the transmission-based method provided average improvements in PET quantification of 6.4%, 2.4%, and 18.7% in volumes of interest inside the lung, soft tissue, and bone tissue, respectively. In conclusion, a transmission-based technique with an annulus-shaped transmission source will be more accurate than a conventional MR-based technique for measuring attenuation coefficients at 511 keV in future whole-body PET/MR studies.
Keywords
transmission, MR/PET, attenuation correction, TOF, TRANSMISSION, ULTRASHORT ECHO TIME, EMISSION, MRI, SCANNER, CT, SEGMENTATION, RECONSTRUCTION, CHALLENGES, TOMOGRAPHY

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MLA
Mollet, Pieter, Vincent Keereman, Jason Bini, et al. “Improvement of Attenuation Correction in Time-of-flight PET/MR Imaging with a Positron-emitting Source.” JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE 55.2 (2014): 329–336. Print.
APA
Mollet, P., Keereman, V., Bini, J., Izquierdo, D., Fayad, Z. A., & Vandenberghe, S. (2014). Improvement of attenuation correction in time-of-flight PET/MR imaging with a positron-emitting source. JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE, 55(2), 329–336.
Chicago author-date
Mollet, Pieter, Vincent Keereman, Jason Bini, David Izquierdo, Zahi A Fayad, and Stefaan Vandenberghe. 2014. “Improvement of Attenuation Correction in Time-of-flight PET/MR Imaging with a Positron-emitting Source.” Journal of Nuclear Medicine 55 (2): 329–336.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Mollet, Pieter, Vincent Keereman, Jason Bini, David Izquierdo, Zahi A Fayad, and Stefaan Vandenberghe. 2014. “Improvement of Attenuation Correction in Time-of-flight PET/MR Imaging with a Positron-emitting Source.” Journal of Nuclear Medicine 55 (2): 329–336.
Vancouver
1.
Mollet P, Keereman V, Bini J, Izquierdo D, Fayad ZA, Vandenberghe S. Improvement of attenuation correction in time-of-flight PET/MR imaging with a positron-emitting source. JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE. 2014;55(2):329–36.
IEEE
[1]
P. Mollet, V. Keereman, J. Bini, D. Izquierdo, Z. A. Fayad, and S. Vandenberghe, “Improvement of attenuation correction in time-of-flight PET/MR imaging with a positron-emitting source,” JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 329–336, 2014.
@article{4324478,
  abstract     = {Quantitative PET imaging relies on accurate attenuation correction. Recently, there has been growing interest in combining state-of-the-art PET systems with MR imaging in a sequential or fully integrated setup. As CT becomes unavailable for these systems, an alternative approach to the CT-based reconstruction of attenuation coefficients (μ values) at 511 keV must be found. Deriving μ values directly from MR images is difficult because MR signals are related to the proton density and relaxation properties of tissue. Therefore, most research groups focus on segmentation or atlas registration techniques. Although studies have shown that these methods provide viable solutions in particular applications, some major drawbacks limit their use in whole-body PET/MR. Previously, we used an annulus-shaped PET transmission source inside the field of view of a PET scanner to measure attenuation coefficients at 511 keV. In this work, we describe the use of this method in studies of patients with the sequential time-of-flight (TOF) PET/MR scanner installed at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY.
Five human PET/MR and CT datasets were acquired. The transmission-based attenuation correction method was compared with conventional CT-based attenuation correction and the 3-segment, MR-based attenuation correction available on the TOF PET/MR imaging scanner.
RESULTS: The transmission-based method overcame most problems related to the MR-based technique, such as truncation artifacts of the arms, segmentation artifacts in the lungs, and imaging of cortical bone. Additionally, the TOF capabilities of the PET detectors allowed the simultaneous acquisition of transmission and emission data. Compared with the MR-based approach, the transmission-based method provided average improvements in PET quantification of 6.4%, 2.4%, and 18.7% in volumes of interest inside the lung, soft tissue, and bone tissue, respectively.
In conclusion, a transmission-based technique with an annulus-shaped transmission source will be more accurate than a conventional MR-based technique for measuring attenuation coefficients at 511 keV in future whole-body PET/MR studies.},
  author       = {Mollet, Pieter and Keereman, Vincent and Bini, Jason and Izquierdo, David and Fayad, Zahi A and Vandenberghe, Stefaan},
  issn         = {0161-5505},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE},
  keywords     = {transmission,MR/PET,attenuation correction,TOF,TRANSMISSION,ULTRASHORT ECHO TIME,EMISSION,MRI,SCANNER,CT,SEGMENTATION,RECONSTRUCTION,CHALLENGES,TOMOGRAPHY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {329--336},
  title        = {Improvement of attenuation correction in time-of-flight PET/MR imaging with a positron-emitting source},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2967/jnumed.113.125989},
  volume       = {55},
  year         = {2014},
}

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