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Abstract
Honey bee virus research is an enormously broad area, ranging from subcellular molecular biology through physiology and behaviour, to individual and colony-level symptoms, transmission and epidemiology. The research methods used in virology are therefore equally diverse. This article covers those methods that are very particular to virological research in bees, with numerous cross-referrals to other BEEBOOK papers on more general methods, used in virology as well as other research. At the root of these methods is the realization that viruses at their most primary level inhabit a molecular, subcellular world, which they manipulate and interact with, to produce all higher order phenomena associated with virus infection and disease. Secondly, that viruses operate in an exponential world, while the host operates in a linear world and that much of the understanding and management of viruses hinges on reconciling these fundamental mathematical differences between virus and host. The article concentrates heavily on virus propagation and methods for detection, with minor excursions into surveying, sampling management and background information on the many viruses found in bees.
Keywords
purification, assays, sampling, virus, honey bee, COLOSS BEEBOOK, standardisation, DEFORMED-WING-VIRUS, BEE-PARALYSIS-VIRUS, QUEEN-CELL-VIRUS, ADULT HONEY-BEES, REAL-TIME PCR, REVERSE-TRANSCRIPTASE PCR, PICORNA-LIKE VIRUS, RHOPALOSIPHUM-PADI VIRUS, QUANTITATIVE RT-PCR, MESSENGER-RNA QUANTIFICATION

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Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

Chicago
de Miranda, Joachim R, Lesley Bailey, Brenda V Ball, Philippe Blanchard, Giles E Budge, Nor Chejanovsky, Yan-Ping Chen, et al. 2013. “Standard Methods for Virus Research in Apis Mellifera.” Journal of Apicultural Research 52 (4).
APA
de Miranda, J. R., Bailey, L., Ball, B. V., Blanchard, P., Budge, G. E., Chejanovsky, N., Chen, Y.-P., et al. (2013). Standard methods for virus research in Apis mellifera. JOURNAL OF APICULTURAL RESEARCH, 52(4).
Vancouver
1.
de Miranda JR, Bailey L, Ball BV, Blanchard P, Budge GE, Chejanovsky N, et al. Standard methods for virus research in Apis mellifera. JOURNAL OF APICULTURAL RESEARCH. 2013;52(4).
MLA
de Miranda, Joachim R, Lesley Bailey, Brenda V Ball, et al. “Standard Methods for Virus Research in Apis Mellifera.” JOURNAL OF APICULTURAL RESEARCH 52.4 (2013): n. pag. Print.
@article{4290228,
  abstract     = {Honey bee virus research is an enormously broad area, ranging from subcellular molecular biology through physiology and behaviour, to individual and colony-level symptoms, transmission and epidemiology. The research methods used in virology are therefore equally diverse. This article covers those methods that are very particular to virological research in bees, with numerous cross-referrals to other BEEBOOK papers on more general methods, used in virology as well as other research. At the root of these methods is the realization that viruses at their most primary level inhabit a molecular, subcellular world, which they manipulate and interact with, to produce all higher order phenomena associated with virus infection and disease. Secondly, that viruses operate in an exponential world, while the host operates in a linear world and that much of the understanding and management of viruses hinges on reconciling these fundamental mathematical differences between virus and host. The article concentrates heavily on virus propagation and methods for detection, with minor excursions into surveying, sampling management and background information on the many viruses found in bees.},
  articleno    = {52.4.22},
  author       = {de Miranda, Joachim R and Bailey, Lesley and Ball, Brenda V and Blanchard, Philippe and Budge, Giles E and Chejanovsky, Nor and Chen, Yan-Ping and Gauthier, Laurent and Genersch, Elke and de Graaf, Dirk and Ribi{\`e}re, Magali and Ryabov, Eugene and De Smet, Lina and van der Steen, Jozef JM},
  issn         = {0021-8839},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF APICULTURAL RESEARCH},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {55},
  title        = {Standard methods for virus research in Apis mellifera},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3896/IBRA.1.52.4.22},
  volume       = {52},
  year         = {2013},
}

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