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Differential transcriptome analysis of glandular and filamentous trichomes in Artemisia annua

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Abstract
Background: The medicinal plant Artemisia annua is covered with filamentous trichomes and glandular, artemisinin producing trichomes. A high artemisinin supply is needed at a reduced cost for treating malaria. Artemisinin production in bioreactors can be facilitated if a better insight is obtained in the biosynthesis of artemisinin and other metabolites. Therefore, metabolic activities of glandular and filamentous trichomes were investigated at the transcriptome level. Results: By laser pressure catapulting, glandular and filamentous trichomes as well as apical and sub-apical cells from glandular trichomes were collected and their transcriptome was sequenced using Illumina RNA-Seq. A de novo transcriptome was assembled (Trinity) and studied with a differential expression analysis (edgeR). A comparison of the transcriptome from glandular and filamentous trichomes shows that MEP, MVA, most terpene and lipid biosynthesis pathways are significantly upregulated in glandular trichomes. Conversely, some transcripts coding for specific sesquiterpenoid and triterpenoid enzymes such as 8-epi-cedrol synthase and an uncharacterized oxidosqualene cyclase were significantly upregulated in filamentous trichomes. All known artemisinin biosynthesis genes are upregulated in glandular trichomes and were detected in both the apical and sub-apical cells of the glandular trichomes. No significant differential expression could be observed between the apical and sub-apical cells. Conclusions: Our results underscore the vast metabolic capacities of A. annua glandular trichomes but nonetheless point to the existence of specific terpene metabolic pathways in the filamentous trichomes. Candidate genes that might be involved in artemisinin biosynthesis are proposed based on their putative function and their differential expression level.
Keywords
PLANT DEFENSE, BIOSYNTHESIS, SEQUENCE DATA, DRUG ARTEMISININ, REFERENCE GENOME, EXPRESSION ANALYSIS, TERPENE METABOLISM, MOLECULAR-CLONING, FATTY-ACID SYNTHESIS, RNA-SEQ DATA, Terpene biosynthesis, Lipid biosynthesis, Mevalonate pathway, MEP pathway, Laser microdissection pressure catapulting, Filamentous trichomes, Glandular trichomes, RNASeq, Artemisinin, Artemisia annua

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Chicago
Soetaert, Sandra, Christophe Van Neste, Mado Vandewoestyne, Steven R Head, Alain Goossens, Filip Van Nieuwerburgh, and Dieter Deforce. 2013. “Differential Transcriptome Analysis of Glandular and Filamentous Trichomes in Artemisia Annua.” Bmc Plant Biology 13.
APA
Soetaert, S., Van Neste, C., Vandewoestyne, M., Head, S. R., Goossens, A., Van Nieuwerburgh, F., & Deforce, D. (2013). Differential transcriptome analysis of glandular and filamentous trichomes in Artemisia annua. BMC PLANT BIOLOGY, 13.
Vancouver
1.
Soetaert S, Van Neste C, Vandewoestyne M, Head SR, Goossens A, Van Nieuwerburgh F, et al. Differential transcriptome analysis of glandular and filamentous trichomes in Artemisia annua. BMC PLANT BIOLOGY. 2013;13.
MLA
Soetaert, Sandra, Christophe Van Neste, Mado Vandewoestyne, et al. “Differential Transcriptome Analysis of Glandular and Filamentous Trichomes in Artemisia Annua.” BMC PLANT BIOLOGY 13 (2013): n. pag. Print.
@article{4288464,
  abstract     = {Background: The medicinal plant Artemisia annua is covered with filamentous trichomes and glandular, artemisinin producing trichomes. A high artemisinin supply is needed at a reduced cost for treating malaria. Artemisinin production in bioreactors can be facilitated if a better insight is obtained in the biosynthesis of artemisinin and other metabolites. Therefore, metabolic activities of glandular and filamentous trichomes were investigated at the transcriptome level. 
Results: By laser pressure catapulting, glandular and filamentous trichomes as well as apical and sub-apical cells from glandular trichomes were collected and their transcriptome was sequenced using Illumina RNA-Seq. A de novo transcriptome was assembled (Trinity) and studied with a differential expression analysis (edgeR). 
A comparison of the transcriptome from glandular and filamentous trichomes shows that MEP, MVA, most terpene and lipid biosynthesis pathways are significantly upregulated in glandular trichomes. Conversely, some transcripts coding for specific sesquiterpenoid and triterpenoid enzymes such as 8-epi-cedrol synthase and an uncharacterized oxidosqualene cyclase were significantly upregulated in filamentous trichomes. All known artemisinin biosynthesis genes are upregulated in glandular trichomes and were detected in both the apical and sub-apical cells of the glandular trichomes. No significant differential expression could be observed between the apical and sub-apical cells. 
Conclusions: Our results underscore the vast metabolic capacities of A. annua glandular trichomes but nonetheless point to the existence of specific terpene metabolic pathways in the filamentous trichomes. Candidate genes that might be involved in artemisinin biosynthesis are proposed based on their putative function and their differential expression level.},
  articleno    = {220},
  author       = {Soetaert, Sandra and Van Neste, Christophe and Vandewoestyne, Mado and Head, Steven R and Goossens, Alain and Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip and Deforce, Dieter},
  issn         = {1471-2229},
  journal      = {BMC PLANT BIOLOGY},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {14},
  title        = {Differential transcriptome analysis of glandular and filamentous trichomes in Artemisia annua},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2229-13-220},
  volume       = {13},
  year         = {2013},
}

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