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Being macrosomic at birth is an independent predictor of overweight in children: results from the IDEFICS study

(2013) MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH JOURNAL. 17(8). p.1373-1381
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Abstract
Fetal macrosomia is a risk factor for the development of obesity late in childhood. We retrospectively evaluated the relationship between maternal conditions associated with fetal macrosomia and actual overweight/obesity in the European cohort of children participating in the IDEFICS study. Anthropometric variables, blood pressure and plasma lipids and glucose were measured. Socio-demographic data, medical history and perinatal factors, familiar and gestational history, maternal and/or gestational diabetes were assessed by a questionnaire. Variables of interest were reported for 10,468 children (M/F = 5,294/5,174; age 6.0 +/- A 1.8 years, M +/- A SD). The sample was divided in four groups according to child birth weight (BW) and maternal diabetes: (1) adequate for gestational age offspring (BW between the 10th and 90th percentiles for gestational age) of mothers without diabetes (AGA-ND); (2) adequate for gestational age offspring of mothers with diabetes (AGA-D); (3) macrosomic offspring (BW > 90th percentile for gestational age) of mothers without diabetes (Macro-ND); (4) macrosomic offspring of mothers with diabetes (Macro-D). Children macrosomic at birth showed significantly higher actual values of body mass index, waist circumference, and sum of skinfold thickness. In both boys and girls, Macro-ND was an independent determinant of overweight/obesity, after the adjustment for confounders [Boys: OR = 1.7 95 % CI (1.3;2.2); Girls: OR = 1.6 95 % CI (1.3;2.0)], while Macro-D showed a significant association only in girls [OR = 2.6 95 % CI (1.1;6.4)]. Fetal macrosomia, also in the absence of maternal/gestational diabetes, is independently associated with the development of overweight/obesity during childhood. Improving the understanding of fetal programming will contribute to the early prevention of childhood overweight/obesity.
Keywords
Gestational diabetes, Fetal macrosomia, Childhood obesity, Gestational weight gain, IDEFICS, BODY-MASS INDEX, METABOLIC SYNDROME, CHILDHOOD OVERWEIGHT, FETAL MACROSOMIA, RISK-FACTORS, OBESITY, ADOLESCENTS, ORIGINS, WEIGHT, MULTICENTER

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Chicago
Sparano, Sonia, Wolfgang Ahrens, Stefaan De Henauw, Staffan Marild, Denes Molnar, Luis A Moreno, Marc Suling, et al. 2013. “Being Macrosomic at Birth Is an Independent Predictor of Overweight in Children: Results from the IDEFICS Study.” Maternal and Child Health Journal 17 (8): 1373–1381.
APA
Sparano, S., Ahrens, W., De Henauw, S., Marild, S., Molnar, D., Moreno, L. A., Suling, M., et al. (2013). Being macrosomic at birth is an independent predictor of overweight in children: results from the IDEFICS study. MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH JOURNAL, 17(8), 1373–1381.
Vancouver
1.
Sparano S, Ahrens W, De Henauw S, Marild S, Molnar D, Moreno LA, et al. Being macrosomic at birth is an independent predictor of overweight in children: results from the IDEFICS study. MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH JOURNAL. 2013;17(8):1373–81.
MLA
Sparano, Sonia, Wolfgang Ahrens, Stefaan De Henauw, et al. “Being Macrosomic at Birth Is an Independent Predictor of Overweight in Children: Results from the IDEFICS Study.” MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH JOURNAL 17.8 (2013): 1373–1381. Print.
@article{4253556,
  abstract     = {Fetal macrosomia is a risk factor for the development of obesity late in childhood. We retrospectively evaluated the relationship between maternal conditions associated with fetal macrosomia and actual overweight/obesity in the European cohort of children participating in the IDEFICS study. Anthropometric variables, blood pressure and plasma lipids and glucose were measured. Socio-demographic data, medical history and perinatal factors, familiar and gestational history, maternal and/or gestational diabetes were assessed by a questionnaire. Variables of interest were reported for 10,468 children (M/F = 5,294/5,174; age 6.0 +/- A 1.8 years, M +/- A SD). The sample was divided in four groups according to child birth weight (BW) and maternal diabetes: (1) adequate for gestational age offspring (BW between the 10th and 90th percentiles for gestational age) of mothers without diabetes (AGA-ND); (2) adequate for gestational age offspring of mothers with diabetes (AGA-D); (3) macrosomic offspring (BW {\textrangle} 90th percentile for gestational age) of mothers without diabetes (Macro-ND); (4) macrosomic offspring of mothers with diabetes (Macro-D). Children macrosomic at birth showed significantly higher actual values of body mass index, waist circumference, and sum of skinfold thickness. In both boys and girls, Macro-ND was an independent determinant of overweight/obesity, after the adjustment for confounders [Boys: OR = 1.7 95 \% CI (1.3;2.2); Girls: OR = 1.6 95 \% CI (1.3;2.0)], while Macro-D showed a significant association only in girls [OR = 2.6 95 \% CI (1.1;6.4)]. Fetal macrosomia, also in the absence of maternal/gestational diabetes, is independently associated with the development of overweight/obesity during childhood. Improving the understanding of fetal programming will contribute to the early prevention of childhood overweight/obesity.},
  author       = {Sparano, Sonia and Ahrens, Wolfgang and De Henauw, Stefaan and Marild, Staffan and Molnar, Denes and Moreno, Luis A and Suling, Marc and Tornaritis, Michael and Veidebaum, Toomas and Siani, Alfonso and Russo, Paola},
  issn         = {1092-7875},
  journal      = {MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH JOURNAL},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {8},
  pages        = {1373--1381},
  title        = {Being macrosomic at birth is an independent predictor of overweight in children: results from the IDEFICS study},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10995-012-1136-2},
  volume       = {17},
  year         = {2013},
}

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