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Children of non-Western origin with end-stage renal disease in the Netherlands, Belgium and a part of Germany have impaired health-related quality of life compared with Western children

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Abstract
Background. Many children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) living in Western Europe are of non-Western European origin. They have unfavourable somatic outcomes compared with ESRD children of Western origin. In this study, we compared the Health-related Quality of Life (HRQoL) of both groups. Methods. All children (5-18 years) with ESRD included in the RICH-Q project (Renal Insufficiency therapy in Children-Quality assessment and improvement) or their parents were asked to complete the generic version of the Paediatric Quality-of-Life Inventory 4.0 (PedsQL). RICH-Q comprises the Netherlands, Belgium and a part of Germany. Children were considered to be of non-Western origin if they or at least one parent was born outside Western-European countries. Impaired HRQoL for children with ESRD of Western or non-Western origin was defined as a PedsQL score less than fifth percentile for healthy Dutch children of Western or non-Western origin, respectively. Results. Of the 259 eligible children, 230 agreed to participate. One hundred and seventy-four children responded (response rate 67%) and 55 (32%) were of non-Western origin. Overall, 31 (56%) of the ESRD children of non-Western origin, and 58 (49%) of Western origin had an impaired total HRQoL score. Total HRQoL scores of children with ESRD of Western origin and non-Western origin were comparable, but scores on emotional functioning and school functioning were lower in non-Western origin (P = 0.004 and 0.01, respectively). The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for ESRD children of non-Western origin to have impaired emotional functioning and school functioning, compared with Western origin, were 3.3(1.5-7.1) and 2.2(1.1-4.2), respectively. Conclusion. Children with ESRD of non-Western origin in three Western countries were found to be at risk for impaired HRQoL on emotional and school functioning. These children warrant special attention.
Keywords
non-Western origin, end-stage renal disease, paediatric nephrology, PedsQL, CHRONIC KIDNEY-DISEASE, PSYCHOSOCIAL ADJUSTMENT, SOCIOECONOMIC-FACTORS, PEDIATRIC-PATIENTS, DIALYSIS TREATMENT, IMMIGRANTS, OUTCOMES, PEDSQL, DUTCH, ESRD

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Chicago
Schoenmaker, Nikki J, Lotte Haverman, Wilma F Tromp, Johanna H van der Lee, Martin Offringa, Brigitte Adams, Antonia HM Bouts, et al. 2014. “Children of non-Western Origin with End-stage Renal Disease in the Netherlands, Belgium and a Part of Germany Have Impaired Health-related Quality of Life Compared with Western Children.” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 29 (2): 448–457.
APA
Schoenmaker, N. J., Haverman, L., Tromp, W. F., van der Lee, J. H., Offringa, M., Adams, B., Bouts, A. H., et al. (2014). Children of non-Western origin with end-stage renal disease in the Netherlands, Belgium and a part of Germany have impaired health-related quality of life compared with Western children. NEPHROLOGY DIALYSIS TRANSPLANTATION, 29(2), 448–457.
Vancouver
1.
Schoenmaker NJ, Haverman L, Tromp WF, van der Lee JH, Offringa M, Adams B, et al. Children of non-Western origin with end-stage renal disease in the Netherlands, Belgium and a part of Germany have impaired health-related quality of life compared with Western children. NEPHROLOGY DIALYSIS TRANSPLANTATION. 2014;29(2):448–57.
MLA
Schoenmaker, Nikki J, Lotte Haverman, Wilma F Tromp, et al. “Children of non-Western Origin with End-stage Renal Disease in the Netherlands, Belgium and a Part of Germany Have Impaired Health-related Quality of Life Compared with Western Children.” NEPHROLOGY DIALYSIS TRANSPLANTATION 29.2 (2014): 448–457. Print.
@article{4252438,
  abstract     = {Background. Many children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) living in Western Europe are of non-Western European origin. They have unfavourable somatic outcomes compared with ESRD children of Western origin. In this study, we compared the Health-related Quality of Life (HRQoL) of both groups.
Methods. All children (5-18 years) with ESRD included in the RICH-Q project (Renal Insufficiency therapy in Children-Quality assessment and improvement) or their parents were asked to complete the generic version of the Paediatric Quality-of-Life Inventory 4.0 (PedsQL). RICH-Q comprises the Netherlands, Belgium and a part of Germany. Children were considered to be of non-Western origin if they or at least one parent was born outside Western-European countries. Impaired HRQoL for children with ESRD of Western or non-Western origin was defined as a PedsQL score less than fifth percentile for healthy Dutch children of Western or non-Western origin, respectively.
Results. Of the 259 eligible children, 230 agreed to participate. One hundred and seventy-four children responded (response rate 67\%) and 55 (32\%) were of non-Western origin. Overall, 31 (56\%) of the ESRD children of non-Western origin, and 58 (49\%) of Western origin had an impaired total HRQoL score. Total HRQoL scores of children with ESRD of Western origin and non-Western origin were comparable, but scores on emotional functioning and school functioning were lower in non-Western origin (P = 0.004 and 0.01, respectively). The adjusted odds ratios (95\% confidence interval) for ESRD children of non-Western origin to have impaired emotional functioning and school functioning, compared with Western origin, were 3.3(1.5-7.1) and 2.2(1.1-4.2), respectively.
Conclusion. Children with ESRD of non-Western origin in three Western countries were found to be at risk for impaired HRQoL on emotional and school functioning. These children warrant special attention.},
  author       = {Schoenmaker, Nikki J and Haverman, Lotte and Tromp, Wilma F and van der Lee, Johanna H and Offringa, Martin and Adams, Brigitte and Bouts, Antonia HM and Collard, Laure and Cransberg, Karlien and van Dyck, Maria and Godefroid, Nathalie and van Hoeck, Koenraad and Koster-Kamphuis, Linda and Lilien, Marc R and Raes, Ann and Taylan, Christina and Grootenhuis, Martha A and Groothoff, Jaap W},
  issn         = {0931-0509},
  journal      = {NEPHROLOGY DIALYSIS TRANSPLANTATION},
  keyword      = {non-Western origin,end-stage renal disease,paediatric nephrology,PedsQL,CHRONIC KIDNEY-DISEASE,PSYCHOSOCIAL ADJUSTMENT,SOCIOECONOMIC-FACTORS,PEDIATRIC-PATIENTS,DIALYSIS TREATMENT,IMMIGRANTS,OUTCOMES,PEDSQL,DUTCH,ESRD},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {448--457},
  title        = {Children of non-Western origin with end-stage renal disease in the Netherlands, Belgium and a part of Germany have impaired health-related quality of life compared with Western children},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gft436},
  volume       = {29},
  year         = {2014},
}

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