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Cardiorespiratory and muscular responses to simulated upwind sailing exercise in optimist sailors

Margot Callewaert (UGent) , Jan Boone (UGent) , Bert Celie (UGent) , Dirk De Clercq (UGent) and Jan Bourgois (UGent)
(2014) PEDIATRIC EXERCISE SCIENCE. 26(1). p.56-63
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Abstract
The aim of this work was to gain more insight into the cardiorespiratory and muscular (M. Vastus lateralis) responses to simulated upwind sailing exercise in 10 high level male and female Optimist sailors (10.8 to 14.4 years old). Hiking strap load (HSL) and cardiorespiratory variables were measured while exercising on a specially developed Optimist sailing ergometer. Electromyography (EMG) was used to determine Mean Power Frequency (MPF) and Root Mean Square (RMS). Near-infrared Spectroscopy was used to measure deoxygenated Hemoglobin and Myoglobin concentration (deoxy[Hb+Mb]) and reoxygenation. Results indicated that HSL and integrated EMG of the Vastus Lateralis muscle changed in accordance with the hiking intensity. Cardiorespiratory response demonstrated an initial significant increase and subsequently steady state in oxygen uptake (VO2), ventilation (VE) and heart rate (HR) up to circa 40 % VO2peak, 30 % VEpeak and 70 % HRpeak respectively. At muscle level, results showed that highly trained Optimist sailors manage to stabilize the muscular demand and fatigue development during upwind sailing (after an initial increase). However, approaching the end of the hiking exercise, the MPF-decrease, RMS-increase and deoxy[Hb+Mb]-increase possibly indicate the onset of muscle fatigue.
Keywords
ISOMETRIC-EXERCISE, NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY, OXYGEN-UPTAKE, LASER SAILORS, PHYSIOLOGICAL-RESPONSES, PERCEIVED EXERTION, REPETITIVE BOUTS, MUSCLE FATIGUE, BLOOD-FLOW, CHILDREN

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MLA
Callewaert, Margot, Jan Boone, Bert Celie, et al. “Cardiorespiratory and Muscular Responses to Simulated Upwind Sailing Exercise in Optimist Sailors.” PEDIATRIC EXERCISE SCIENCE 26.1 (2014): 56–63. Print.
APA
Callewaert, M., Boone, J., Celie, B., De Clercq, D., & Bourgois, J. (2014). Cardiorespiratory and muscular responses to simulated upwind sailing exercise in optimist sailors. PEDIATRIC EXERCISE SCIENCE, 26(1), 56–63.
Chicago author-date
Callewaert, Margot, Jan Boone, Bert Celie, Dirk De Clercq, and Jan Bourgois. 2014. “Cardiorespiratory and Muscular Responses to Simulated Upwind Sailing Exercise in Optimist Sailors.” Pediatric Exercise Science 26 (1): 56–63.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Callewaert, Margot, Jan Boone, Bert Celie, Dirk De Clercq, and Jan Bourgois. 2014. “Cardiorespiratory and Muscular Responses to Simulated Upwind Sailing Exercise in Optimist Sailors.” Pediatric Exercise Science 26 (1): 56–63.
Vancouver
1.
Callewaert M, Boone J, Celie B, De Clercq D, Bourgois J. Cardiorespiratory and muscular responses to simulated upwind sailing exercise in optimist sailors. PEDIATRIC EXERCISE SCIENCE. 2014;26(1):56–63.
IEEE
[1]
M. Callewaert, J. Boone, B. Celie, D. De Clercq, and J. Bourgois, “Cardiorespiratory and muscular responses to simulated upwind sailing exercise in optimist sailors,” PEDIATRIC EXERCISE SCIENCE, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 56–63, 2014.
@article{4245940,
  abstract     = {The aim of this work was to gain more insight into the cardiorespiratory and muscular (M. Vastus lateralis) responses to simulated upwind sailing exercise in 10 high level male and female Optimist sailors (10.8 to 14.4 years old). Hiking strap load (HSL) and cardiorespiratory variables were measured while exercising on a specially developed Optimist sailing ergometer. Electromyography (EMG) was used to determine Mean Power Frequency (MPF) and Root Mean Square (RMS). Near-infrared Spectroscopy was used to measure deoxygenated Hemoglobin and Myoglobin concentration (deoxy[Hb+Mb]) and reoxygenation. Results indicated that HSL and integrated EMG of the Vastus Lateralis muscle changed in accordance with the hiking intensity. Cardiorespiratory response demonstrated an initial significant increase and subsequently steady state in oxygen uptake (VO2), ventilation (VE) and heart rate (HR) up to circa 40 % VO2peak, 30 % VEpeak and 70 % HRpeak respectively. At muscle level, results showed that highly trained Optimist sailors manage to stabilize the muscular demand and fatigue development during upwind sailing (after an initial increase). However, approaching the end of the hiking exercise, the MPF-decrease, RMS-increase and deoxy[Hb+Mb]-increase possibly indicate the onset of muscle fatigue.},
  author       = {Callewaert, Margot and Boone, Jan and Celie, Bert and De Clercq, Dirk and Bourgois, Jan},
  issn         = {0899-8493},
  journal      = {PEDIATRIC EXERCISE SCIENCE},
  keywords     = {ISOMETRIC-EXERCISE,NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY,OXYGEN-UPTAKE,LASER SAILORS,PHYSIOLOGICAL-RESPONSES,PERCEIVED EXERTION,REPETITIVE BOUTS,MUSCLE FATIGUE,BLOOD-FLOW,CHILDREN},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {56--63},
  title        = {Cardiorespiratory and muscular responses to simulated upwind sailing exercise in optimist sailors},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/pes.2012-0203},
  volume       = {26},
  year         = {2014},
}

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