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Constitutional varus does not affect joint line orientation in the coronal plane

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Abstract
In a previous study, we described the distribution of coronal alignment in a normal asymptomatic population and recognized the occurrence of constitutional varus in one of four individuals. It is important to further investigate the influence of this condition on the joint line orientation and how the latter is affected by the onset and progression of arthritis. The purposes of this study are (1) to describe the distribution of joint line orientation in the coronal plane in the normal population; (2) to compare joint line orientation between patients with constitutional varus and neutral mechanical alignment; and (3) to compare joint line orientation between a cohort of patients with prearthritic constitutional varus and a cohort of patients with established symptomatic varus arthritis. Full-leg standing hip-to-ankle digital radiographs were performed in 248 young healthy individuals and 532 patients with knee arthritis. Hip-knee-ankle (HKA) angle and tibial joint line angle (TJLA) were measured in the coronal plane. Patients were subdivided into varus (HKA a parts per thousand currency sign -3A degrees), neutral, and valgus (HKA a parts per thousand yen 3A degrees). The mean TJLA in healthy subjects was 0.3A degrees (SD 2.0A degrees). TJLA was parallel to the floor in healthy subgroups with neutral alignment (TJLA 0.3A degrees, SD 1.9) and constitutional varus (TJLA 0.2A degrees, SD 2.2A degrees). In patients with symptomatic arthritis and varus alignment, the TJLA opened medially (mean -1.9A degrees, SD 3.5A degrees). Constitutional varus does not affect joint line orientation. Advanced medial arthritis causes divergence of the joint line from parallel to the floor. These findings influence decision-making for osteotomy and alignment in total knee arthroplasty.
Keywords
ALIGNMENT, OSTEOARTHRITIS, TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY, FEMUR, DISEASE, VALGUS, DEFORMITY, PROGRESSION

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Chicago
Victor, Jan, David Bassens, Johan Bellemans, Sarper Gürsu, Aad Dhollander, and Peter Verdonk. 2014. “Constitutional Varus Does Not Affect Joint Line Orientation in the Coronal Plane.” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 472 (1): 98–104.
APA
Victor, J., Bassens, D., Bellemans, J., Gürsu, S., Dhollander, A., & Verdonk, P. (2014). Constitutional varus does not affect joint line orientation in the coronal plane. CLINICAL ORTHOPAEDICS AND RELATED RESEARCH, 472(1), 98–104.
Vancouver
1.
Victor J, Bassens D, Bellemans J, Gürsu S, Dhollander A, Verdonk P. Constitutional varus does not affect joint line orientation in the coronal plane. CLINICAL ORTHOPAEDICS AND RELATED RESEARCH. 2014;472(1):98–104.
MLA
Victor, Jan, David Bassens, Johan Bellemans, et al. “Constitutional Varus Does Not Affect Joint Line Orientation in the Coronal Plane.” CLINICAL ORTHOPAEDICS AND RELATED RESEARCH 472.1 (2014): 98–104. Print.
@article{4245550,
  abstract     = {In a previous study, we described the distribution of coronal alignment in a normal asymptomatic population and recognized the occurrence of constitutional varus in one of four individuals. It is important to further investigate the influence of this condition on the joint line orientation and how the latter is affected by the onset and progression of arthritis.
The purposes of this study are (1) to describe the distribution of joint line orientation in the coronal plane in the normal population; (2) to compare joint line orientation between patients with constitutional varus and neutral mechanical alignment; and (3) to compare joint line orientation between a cohort of patients with prearthritic constitutional varus and a cohort of patients with established symptomatic varus arthritis.
Full-leg standing hip-to-ankle digital radiographs were performed in 248 young healthy individuals and 532 patients with knee arthritis. Hip-knee-ankle (HKA) angle and tibial joint line angle (TJLA) were measured in the coronal plane. Patients were subdivided into varus (HKA a parts per thousand currency sign -3A degrees), neutral, and valgus (HKA a parts per thousand yen 3A degrees).
The mean TJLA in healthy subjects was 0.3A degrees (SD 2.0A degrees). TJLA was parallel to the floor in healthy subgroups with neutral alignment (TJLA 0.3A degrees, SD 1.9) and constitutional varus (TJLA 0.2A degrees, SD 2.2A degrees). In patients with symptomatic arthritis and varus alignment, the TJLA opened medially (mean -1.9A degrees, SD 3.5A degrees).
Constitutional varus does not affect joint line orientation. Advanced medial arthritis causes divergence of the joint line from parallel to the floor. These findings influence decision-making for osteotomy and alignment in total knee arthroplasty.},
  author       = {Victor, Jan and Bassens, David and Bellemans, Johan and G{\"u}rsu, Sarper and Dhollander, Aad and Verdonk, Peter},
  issn         = {0009-921X},
  journal      = {CLINICAL ORTHOPAEDICS AND RELATED RESEARCH},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {98--104},
  title        = {Constitutional varus does not affect joint line orientation in the coronal plane},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11999-013-2898-6},
  volume       = {472},
  year         = {2014},
}

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