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Reward prospect rapidly speeds up response inhibition via reactive control

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The integrative neuroscience of behavioral control (Neuroscience)
Abstract
Response inhibition is an important cognitive-control function that allows for already-initiated or habitual behavioral responses to be promptly withheld when needed. A typical paradigm to study this function is the stop-signal task. From this task, the stop-signal response time (SSRT) can be derived, which indexes how rapidly an already-initiated response can be canceled. Typically, SSRTs range around 200 ms, identifying response inhibition as a particularly rapid cognitive-control process. Even so, it has recently been shown that SSRTs can be further accelerated if successful response inhibition is rewarded. Since this earlier study effectively ruled out differential preparatory (proactive) control adjustments, the reward benefits likely relied on boosted reactive control. Yet, given how rapidly such control processes would need to be enhanced, alternative explanations circumventing reactive control are important to consider. We addressed this question with an fMRI study by gauging the overlap of the brain networks associated with reward-related and response-inhibition-related processes in a reward-modulated stop-signal task. In line with the view that reactive control can indeed be boosted swiftly by reward availability, we found that the activity in key brain areas related to response inhibition was enhanced for reward-related stop trials. Furthermore, we observed that this beneficial reward effect was triggered by enhanced connectivity between task-unspecific (reward-related) and task-specific (inhibition-related) areas in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). The present data hence suggest that reward information can be translated very rapidly into behavioral benefits (here, within ~200 ms) through enhanced reactive control, underscoring the immediate responsiveness of such control processes to reward availability in general.
Keywords
ANTERIOR CINGULATE CORTEX, STOP-SIGNAL TASK, TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION, INFERIOR FRONTAL-CORTEX, EVENT-RELATED FMRI, COGNITIVE CONTROL, DOPAMINERGIC MIDBRAIN, PREFRONTAL CORTEX, SUBCORTICAL INTERACTIONS, MOTIVATIONAL INFLUENCES, Reward, Cognitive control

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Citation

Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

Chicago
Böhler, Nico, Hanne Schevernels, Jens-Max Hopf, Christian Stoppel, and Ruth Krebs. 2014. “Reward Prospect Rapidly Speeds up Response Inhibition via Reactive Control.” Cognitive Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience 14 (2): 593–609.
APA
Böhler, N., Schevernels, H., Hopf, J.-M., Stoppel, C., & Krebs, R. (2014). Reward prospect rapidly speeds up response inhibition via reactive control. COGNITIVE AFFECTIVE & BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE, 14(2), 593–609.
Vancouver
1.
Böhler N, Schevernels H, Hopf J-M, Stoppel C, Krebs R. Reward prospect rapidly speeds up response inhibition via reactive control. COGNITIVE AFFECTIVE & BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE. 2014;14(2):593–609.
MLA
Böhler, Nico, Hanne Schevernels, Jens-Max Hopf, et al. “Reward Prospect Rapidly Speeds up Response Inhibition via Reactive Control.” COGNITIVE AFFECTIVE & BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE 14.2 (2014): 593–609. Print.
@article{4243685,
  abstract     = {Response inhibition is an important cognitive-control function that allows for already-initiated or habitual behavioral responses to be promptly withheld when needed. A typical paradigm to study this function is the stop-signal task. From this task, the stop-signal response time (SSRT) can be derived, which indexes how rapidly an already-initiated response can be canceled. Typically, SSRTs range around 200 ms, identifying response inhibition as a particularly rapid cognitive-control process. Even so, it has recently been shown that SSRTs can be further accelerated if successful response inhibition is rewarded. Since this earlier study effectively ruled out differential preparatory (proactive) control adjustments, the reward benefits likely relied on boosted reactive control. Yet, given how rapidly such control processes would need to be enhanced, alternative explanations circumventing reactive control are important to consider. We addressed this question with an fMRI study by gauging the overlap of the brain networks associated with reward-related and response-inhibition-related processes in a reward-modulated stop-signal task. In line with the view that reactive control can indeed be boosted swiftly by reward availability, we found that the activity in key brain areas related to response inhibition was enhanced for reward-related stop trials. Furthermore, we observed that this beneficial reward effect was triggered by enhanced connectivity between task-unspecific (reward-related) and task-specific (inhibition-related) areas in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). The present data hence suggest that reward information can be translated very rapidly into behavioral benefits (here, within ~200 ms) through enhanced reactive control, underscoring the immediate responsiveness of such control processes to reward availability in general.},
  author       = {Böhler, Nico and Schevernels, Hanne and Hopf, Jens-Max and Stoppel, Christian and Krebs, Ruth},
  issn         = {1530-7026},
  journal      = {COGNITIVE AFFECTIVE & BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE},
  keywords     = {ANTERIOR CINGULATE CORTEX,STOP-SIGNAL TASK,TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION,INFERIOR FRONTAL-CORTEX,EVENT-RELATED FMRI,COGNITIVE CONTROL,DOPAMINERGIC MIDBRAIN,PREFRONTAL CORTEX,SUBCORTICAL INTERACTIONS,MOTIVATIONAL INFLUENCES,Reward,Cognitive control},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {593--609},
  title        = {Reward prospect rapidly speeds up response inhibition via reactive control},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13415-014-0251-5},
  volume       = {14},
  year         = {2014},
}

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