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Ancient dispersal of the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus gattii from the Amazon rainforest

(2013) PLOS ONE. 8(8).
Author
Organization
Abstract
Over the past two decades, several fungal outbreaks have occurred, including the high-profile 'Vancouver Island' and 'Pacific Northwest' outbreaks, caused by Cryptococcus gattii, which has affected hundreds of otherwise healthy humans and animals. Over the same time period, C. gattii was the cause of several additional case clusters at localities outside of the tropical and subtropical climate zones where the species normally occurs. In every case, the causative agent belongs to a previously rare genotype of C. gattii called AFLP6/VGII, but the origin of the outbreak clades remains enigmatic. Here we used phylogenetic and recombination analyses, based on AFLP and multiple MLST datasets, and coalescence gene genealogy to demonstrate that these outbreaks have arisen from a highly-recombining C. gattii population in the native rainforest of Northern Brazil. Thus the modern virulent C. gattii AFLP6/VGII outbreak lineages derived from mating events in South America and then dispersed to temperate regions where they cause serious infections in humans and animals.
Keywords
BRITISH-COLUMBIA, ENVIRONMENTAL SOURCES, VANCOUVER-ISLAND, NEOFORMANS VAR. GATTII, UNITED-STATES, NATURAL HABITAT, CANADA, OUTBREAK, PACIFIC-NORTHWEST, SPECIES COMPLEX

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Citation

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MLA
Hagen, Ferry, Paulo C Ceresini, Itzhack Polacheck, et al. “Ancient Dispersal of the Human Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus Gattii from the Amazon Rainforest.” PLOS ONE 8.8 (2013): n. pag. Print.
APA
Hagen, F., Ceresini, P. C., Polacheck, I., Ma, H., Van Nieuwerburgh, F., Gabaldón, T., Kagan, S., et al. (2013). Ancient dispersal of the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus gattii from the Amazon rainforest. PLOS ONE, 8(8).
Chicago author-date
Hagen, Ferry, Paulo C Ceresini, Itzhack Polacheck, Hansong Ma, Filip Van Nieuwerburgh, Toni Gabaldón, Sarah Kagan, et al. 2013. “Ancient Dispersal of the Human Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus Gattii from the Amazon Rainforest.” Plos One 8 (8).
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Hagen, Ferry, Paulo C Ceresini, Itzhack Polacheck, Hansong Ma, Filip Van Nieuwerburgh, Toni Gabaldón, Sarah Kagan, E Rhiannon Pursall, Hans L Hoogveld, Leo JJ van Iersel, Gunnar W Klau, Steven M Kelk, Leen Stougie, Karen H Bartlett, Kerstin Voelz, Leszek P Pryszcz, Elizabeth Castañeda, Marcia Lazera, Wieland Meyer, Dieter Deforce, Jacques F Meis, Robin C May, Corné HW Klaassen, and Teun Boekhout. 2013. “Ancient Dispersal of the Human Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus Gattii from the Amazon Rainforest.” Plos One 8 (8).
Vancouver
1.
Hagen F, Ceresini PC, Polacheck I, Ma H, Van Nieuwerburgh F, Gabaldón T, et al. Ancient dispersal of the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus gattii from the Amazon rainforest. PLOS ONE. 2013;8(8).
IEEE
[1]
F. Hagen et al., “Ancient dispersal of the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus gattii from the Amazon rainforest,” PLOS ONE, vol. 8, no. 8, 2013.
@article{4241891,
  abstract     = {Over the past two decades, several fungal outbreaks have occurred, including the high-profile 'Vancouver Island' and 'Pacific Northwest' outbreaks, caused by Cryptococcus gattii, which has affected hundreds of otherwise healthy humans and animals. Over the same time period, C. gattii was the cause of several additional case clusters at localities outside of the tropical and subtropical climate zones where the species normally occurs. In every case, the causative agent belongs to a previously rare genotype of C. gattii called AFLP6/VGII, but the origin of the outbreak clades remains enigmatic. Here we used phylogenetic and recombination analyses, based on AFLP and multiple MLST datasets, and coalescence gene genealogy to demonstrate that these outbreaks have arisen from a highly-recombining C. gattii population in the native rainforest of Northern Brazil. Thus the modern virulent C. gattii AFLP6/VGII outbreak lineages derived from mating events in South America and then dispersed to temperate regions where they cause serious infections in humans and animals.},
  articleno    = {e71148},
  author       = {Hagen, Ferry and Ceresini, Paulo C and Polacheck, Itzhack and Ma, Hansong and Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip and Gabaldón, Toni and Kagan, Sarah and Pursall, E Rhiannon and Hoogveld, Hans L and van Iersel, Leo JJ and Klau, Gunnar W and Kelk, Steven M and Stougie, Leen and Bartlett, Karen H and Voelz, Kerstin and Pryszcz, Leszek P and Castañeda, Elizabeth and Lazera, Marcia and Meyer, Wieland and Deforce, Dieter and Meis, Jacques F and May, Robin C and Klaassen, Corné HW and Boekhout, Teun},
  issn         = {1932-6203},
  journal      = {PLOS ONE},
  keywords     = {BRITISH-COLUMBIA,ENVIRONMENTAL SOURCES,VANCOUVER-ISLAND,NEOFORMANS VAR. GATTII,UNITED-STATES,NATURAL HABITAT,CANADA,OUTBREAK,PACIFIC-NORTHWEST,SPECIES COMPLEX},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {8},
  pages        = {14},
  title        = {Ancient dispersal of the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus gattii from the Amazon rainforest},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071148},
  volume       = {8},
  year         = {2013},
}

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