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Muscle carnosine loading by beta-alanine supplementation is more pronounced in trained vs. untrained muscles

Tine Bex (UGent) , Weiliang Chung (UGent) , Audrey Baguet (UGent) , Sanne Stegen (UGent) , Jan Stautemas (UGent) , Eric Achten (UGent) and Wim Derave (UGent)
(2014) JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY. 116(2). p.204-209
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Abstract
Carnosine occurs in high concentrations in human skeletal muscle and assists working capacity during high-intensity exercise. Chronic beta-alanine (BA) supplementation has consistently been shown to augment muscle carnosine concentration, but the effect of training on the carnosine loading efficiency is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to compare muscle carnosine loading between trained and untrained arm and leg muscles. In a first study (n  17), reliability of carnosine quantification by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) was evaluated in deltoid and triceps brachii muscles. In a second study, participants (n  35; 10 nonathletes, 10 cyclists, 10 swimmers, and 5 kayakers) were supplemented with 6.4 g/day of slow-release BA for 23 days. Carnosine content was evaluated in soleus, gastrocnemius medialis, and deltoid muscles by 1H-MRS. All the results are reported as arbitrary units. In the nonathletes, BA supplementation increased carnosine content by 47% in the arm and 33% in the leg muscles (not significant). In kayakers, the increase was more pronounced in arm (deltoid) vs. leg (soleus  gastrocnemius) muscles (0.089 vs. 0.049), whereas the reverse pattern was observed in cyclists (0.065 vs. 0.084). Swimmers had significantly higher increase in carnosine in both deltoid (0.107 vs. 0.065) and gastrocnemius muscle (0.082 vs. 0.051) compared with nonathletes. We showed that 1) carnosine content can be reliably measured by 1H-MRS in deltoid muscle, 2) carnosine loading is equally effective in arm vs. leg muscles of nonathletes, and 3) carnosine loading is more pronounced in trained vs. untrained muscles.
Keywords
sport supplements, histidine-containing dipeptides, muscle contractions, HUMAN SKELETAL-MUSCLE, EXERCISE PERFORMANCE, SODIUM-BICARBONATE, CAPACITY, CREATINE, FIBERS

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Chicago
Bex, Tine, Weiliang Chung, Audrey Baguet, Sanne Stegen, Jan Stautemas, Eric Achten, and Wim Derave. 2014. “Muscle Carnosine Loading by Beta-alanine Supplementation Is More Pronounced in Trained Vs. Untrained Muscles.” Journal of Applied Physiology 116 (2): 204–209.
APA
Bex, T., Chung, W., Baguet, A., Stegen, S., Stautemas, J., Achten, E., & Derave, W. (2014). Muscle carnosine loading by beta-alanine supplementation is more pronounced in trained vs. untrained muscles. JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY, 116(2), 204–209.
Vancouver
1.
Bex T, Chung W, Baguet A, Stegen S, Stautemas J, Achten E, et al. Muscle carnosine loading by beta-alanine supplementation is more pronounced in trained vs. untrained muscles. JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY. 2014;116(2):204–9.
MLA
Bex, Tine, Weiliang Chung, Audrey Baguet, et al. “Muscle Carnosine Loading by Beta-alanine Supplementation Is More Pronounced in Trained Vs. Untrained Muscles.” JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY 116.2 (2014): 204–209. Print.
@article{4237476,
  abstract     = {Carnosine occurs in high concentrations in human skeletal muscle and assists working capacity during high-intensity exercise. Chronic beta-alanine (BA) supplementation has consistently been shown to augment muscle carnosine concentration, but the effect of training on the carnosine loading efficiency is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to compare muscle carnosine loading between trained and untrained arm and leg muscles. In a first study (n \unmatched{0002} 17), reliability of carnosine quantification by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) was evaluated in deltoid and triceps brachii muscles. In a second study, participants (n \unmatched{0002} 35; 10 nonathletes, 10 cyclists, 10 swimmers, and 5 kayakers) were supplemented with 6.4 g/day of slow-release BA for 23 days. Carnosine content was evaluated in soleus, gastrocnemius medialis, and deltoid muscles by 1H-MRS. All the results are reported as arbitrary units. In the nonathletes, BA supplementation increased carnosine content by 47\% in the arm and 33\% in the leg muscles (not significant). In kayakers, the increase was more pronounced in arm (deltoid) vs. leg (soleus \unmatched{0003} gastrocnemius) muscles (0.089 vs. 0.049), whereas the reverse pattern was observed in cyclists (0.065 vs. 0.084). Swimmers had significantly higher increase in carnosine in both deltoid (0.107 vs. 0.065) and gastrocnemius muscle (0.082 vs. 0.051) compared with nonathletes. We showed that 1) carnosine content can be reliably measured by 1H-MRS in deltoid muscle, 2) carnosine loading is equally effective in arm vs. leg muscles of nonathletes, and 3) carnosine loading is more pronounced in trained vs. untrained muscles.},
  author       = {Bex, Tine and Chung, Weiliang and Baguet, Audrey and Stegen, Sanne and Stautemas, Jan and Achten, Eric and Derave, Wim},
  issn         = {8750-7587},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {204--209},
  title        = {Muscle carnosine loading by beta-alanine supplementation is more pronounced in trained vs. untrained muscles},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01033.2013},
  volume       = {116},
  year         = {2014},
}

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