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The synergistic necrohemorrhagic action of Clostridium perfringens perfringolysin and alpha toxin in the bovine intestine and against bovine endothelial cells

Stefanie Verherstraeten (UGent) , Evy Goossens (UGent) , Bonnie Valgaeren (UGent) , Bart Pardon (UGent) , Leen Timbermont (UGent) , Karen Vermeulen (UGent) , Stijn Schauvliege (UGent) , Freddy Haesebrouck (UGent) , Richard Ducatelle (UGent) , Piet Deprez (UGent) , et al.
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Abstract
Bovine necrohemorrhagic enteritis is a major cause of mortality in veal calves. Clostridium perfringens is considered as the causative agent, but there has been controversy on the toxins responsible for the disease. Recently, it has been demonstrated that a variety of C. perfringens type A strains can induce necrohemorrhagic lesions in a calf intestinal loop assay. These results put forward alpha toxin and perfringolysin as potential causative toxins, since both are produced by all C. perfringens type A strains. The importance of perfringolysin in the pathogenesis of bovine necrohemorrhagic enteritis has not been studied before. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to evaluate the role of perfringolysin in the development of necrohemorrhagic enteritis lesions in calves and its synergism with alpha toxin. A perfringolysin-deficient mutant, an alpha toxin-deficient mutant and a perfringolysin alpha toxin double mutant were less able to induce necrosis in a calf intestinal loop assay as compared to the wild-type strain. Only complementation with both toxins could restore the activity to that of the wild-type. In addition, perfringolysin and alpha toxin had a synergistic cytotoxic effect on bovine endothelial cells. This endothelial cell damage potentially explains why capillary hemorrhages are an initial step in the development of bovine necrohemorrhagic enteritis. Taken together, our results show that perfringolysin acts synergistically with alpha toxin in the development of necrohemorrhagic enteritis in a calf intestinal loop model and we hypothesize that both toxins act by targeting the endothelial cells.
Keywords
MEDIATED GAS-GANGRENE, D EPSILON TOXIN, BETA2 TOXIN, VEAL CALVES, THETA-TOXIN, NECROTIC ENTERITIS, IN-VITRO, ENTEROTOXEMIA, PROTEIN, VIRULENCE

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Chicago
Verherstraeten, Stefanie, Evy Goossens, Bonnie Valgaeren, Bart Pardon, Leen Timbermont, Karen Vermeulen, Stijn Schauvliege, et al. 2013. “The Synergistic Necrohemorrhagic Action of Clostridium Perfringens Perfringolysin and Alpha Toxin in the Bovine Intestine and Against Bovine Endothelial Cells.” Veterinary Research 44.
APA
Verherstraeten, Stefanie, Goossens, E., Valgaeren, B., Pardon, B., Timbermont, L., Vermeulen, K., Schauvliege, S., et al. (2013). The synergistic necrohemorrhagic action of Clostridium perfringens perfringolysin and alpha toxin in the bovine intestine and against bovine endothelial cells. VETERINARY RESEARCH, 44.
Vancouver
1.
Verherstraeten S, Goossens E, Valgaeren B, Pardon B, Timbermont L, Vermeulen K, et al. The synergistic necrohemorrhagic action of Clostridium perfringens perfringolysin and alpha toxin in the bovine intestine and against bovine endothelial cells. VETERINARY RESEARCH. 2013;44.
MLA
Verherstraeten, Stefanie, Evy Goossens, Bonnie Valgaeren, et al. “The Synergistic Necrohemorrhagic Action of Clostridium Perfringens Perfringolysin and Alpha Toxin in the Bovine Intestine and Against Bovine Endothelial Cells.” VETERINARY RESEARCH 44 (2013): n. pag. Print.
@article{4232910,
  abstract     = {Bovine necrohemorrhagic enteritis is a major cause of mortality in veal calves. Clostridium perfringens is considered as the causative agent, but there has been controversy on the toxins responsible for the disease. Recently, it has been demonstrated that a variety of C. perfringens type A strains can induce necrohemorrhagic lesions in a calf intestinal loop assay. These results put forward alpha toxin and perfringolysin as potential causative toxins, since both are produced by all C. perfringens type A strains. The importance of perfringolysin in the pathogenesis of bovine necrohemorrhagic enteritis has not been studied before. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to evaluate the role of perfringolysin in the development of necrohemorrhagic enteritis lesions in calves and its synergism with alpha toxin. A perfringolysin-deficient mutant, an alpha toxin-deficient mutant and a perfringolysin alpha toxin double mutant were less able to induce necrosis in a calf intestinal loop assay as compared to the wild-type strain. Only complementation with both toxins could restore the activity to that of the wild-type. In addition, perfringolysin and alpha toxin had a synergistic cytotoxic effect on bovine endothelial cells. This endothelial cell damage potentially explains why capillary hemorrhages are an initial step in the development of bovine necrohemorrhagic enteritis. Taken together, our results show that perfringolysin acts synergistically with alpha toxin in the development of necrohemorrhagic enteritis in a calf intestinal loop model and we hypothesize that both toxins act by targeting the endothelial cells.},
  articleno    = {45},
  author       = {Verherstraeten, Stefanie and Goossens, Evy and Valgaeren, Bonnie and Pardon, Bart and Timbermont, Leen and Vermeulen, Karen and Schauvliege, Stijn and Haesebrouck, Freddy and Ducatelle, Richard and Deprez, Piet and Van Immerseel, Filip},
  issn         = {0928-4249},
  journal      = {VETERINARY RESEARCH},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {8},
  title        = {The synergistic necrohemorrhagic action of Clostridium perfringens perfringolysin and alpha toxin in the bovine intestine and against bovine endothelial cells},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1297-9716-44-45},
  volume       = {44},
  year         = {2013},
}

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