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Rotatory and collic vestibular evoked myogenic potential testing in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired children

Leen Maes (UGent) , Alexandra De Kegel (UGent) , Hilde Van Waelvelde (UGent) and Ingeborg Dhooge (UGent)
(2014) EAR AND HEARING. 35(2). p.e21-e32
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Abstract
Objectives: Vertigo and imbalance are often underestimated in the pediatric population, due to limited communication abilities, atypical symptoms, and relatively quick adaptation and compensation in children. Moreover, examination and interpretation of vestibular tests are very challenging, because of difficulties with cooperation and maintenance of alertness, and because of the sometimes nauseatic reactions. Therefore, it is of great importance for each vestibular laboratory to implement a child-friendly test protocol with age-appropriate normative data. Because of the often masked appearance of vestibular problems in young children, the vestibular organ should be routinely examined in high-risk pediatric groups, such as children with a hearing impairment. Purposes of the present study were (1) to determine age-appropriate normative data for two child-friendly vestibular laboratory techniques (rotatory and collic vestibular evoked myogenic potential [cVEMP] test) in a group of children without auditory or vestibular complaints, and (2) to examine vestibular function in a group of children presenting with bilateral hearing impairment. Design: Forty-eight typically developing children (mean age 8 years 0 months; range: 4 years 1 month to 12 years 11 months) without any auditory or vestibular complaints as well as 39 children (mean age 7 years 8 months; range: 3 years 8 months to 12 years 10 months) with a bilateral sensorineural hearing loss were included in this study. All children underwent three sinusoidal rotations (0.01, 0.05, and 0.1 Hz at 50 degrees/s) and bilateral cVEMP testing. Results: No significant age differences were found for the rotatory test, whereas a significant increase of N1 latency and a significant threshold decrease was noticeable for the cVEMP, resulting in age-appropriate normative data. Hearing-impaired children demonstrated significantly lower gain values at the 0.01 Hz rotation and a larger percentage of absent cVEMP responses compared with normal-hearing children. Seventy-four percent of hearing-impaired children showed some type of vestibular abnormality when examined with a combination of rotatory and cVEMP testing, in contrast to an abnormality rate of 60% with cVEMP and a rate of 49% with rotatory testing alone. Conclusions: The observed pediatric age correlations underscore the necessity of age-appropriate normative data to guarantee accurate interpretation of test results. The high percentages of abnormal vestibular test results in hearing-impaired children emphasize the importance of vestibular assessment in these children because the integrity of the vestibular system is a critical factor for motor and psychological development.
Keywords
VELOCITY STEP TEST, COCHLEAR IMPLANTATION, TEST-RETEST RELIABILITY, HARMONIC ACCELERATION TEST, PSEUDORANDOM ROTATION TEST, Vestibular assessment, Hearing impaired children, Normative data, Normal hearing children, Rotatory testing, Collic vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP), VESTIBULOOCULAR REFLEX, YOUNG-CHILDREN, DEAF-CHILDREN, CALORIC TEST, END-ORGAN

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Citation

Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

Chicago
Maes, Leen, Alexandra De Kegel, Hilde Van Waelvelde, and Ingeborg Dhooge. 2014. “Rotatory and Collic Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential Testing in Normal-hearing and Hearing-impaired Children.” Ear and Hearing 35 (2): e21–e32.
APA
Maes, Leen, De Kegel, A., Van Waelvelde, H., & Dhooge, I. (2014). Rotatory and collic vestibular evoked myogenic potential testing in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired children. EAR AND HEARING, 35(2), e21–e32.
Vancouver
1.
Maes L, De Kegel A, Van Waelvelde H, Dhooge I. Rotatory and collic vestibular evoked myogenic potential testing in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired children. EAR AND HEARING. 2014;35(2):e21–e32.
MLA
Maes, Leen, Alexandra De Kegel, Hilde Van Waelvelde, et al. “Rotatory and Collic Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential Testing in Normal-hearing and Hearing-impaired Children.” EAR AND HEARING 35.2 (2014): e21–e32. Print.
@article{4222219,
  abstract     = {Objectives: Vertigo and imbalance are often underestimated in the pediatric population, due to limited communication abilities, atypical symptoms, and relatively quick adaptation and compensation in children. Moreover, examination and interpretation of vestibular tests are very challenging, because of difficulties with cooperation and maintenance of alertness, and because of the sometimes nauseatic reactions. Therefore, it is of great importance for each vestibular laboratory to implement a child-friendly test protocol with age-appropriate normative data. Because of the often masked appearance of vestibular problems in young children, the vestibular organ should be routinely examined in high-risk pediatric groups, such as children with a hearing impairment. Purposes of the present study were (1) to determine age-appropriate normative data for two child-friendly vestibular laboratory techniques (rotatory and collic vestibular evoked myogenic potential [cVEMP] test) in a group of children without auditory or vestibular complaints, and (2) to examine vestibular function in a group of children presenting with bilateral hearing impairment. 
Design: Forty-eight typically developing children (mean age 8 years 0 months; range: 4 years 1 month to 12 years 11 months) without any auditory or vestibular complaints as well as 39 children (mean age 7 years 8 months; range: 3 years 8 months to 12 years 10 months) with a bilateral sensorineural hearing loss were included in this study. All children underwent three sinusoidal rotations (0.01, 0.05, and 0.1 Hz at 50 degrees/s) and bilateral cVEMP testing. 
Results: No significant age differences were found for the rotatory test, whereas a significant increase of N1 latency and a significant threshold decrease was noticeable for the cVEMP, resulting in age-appropriate normative data. Hearing-impaired children demonstrated significantly lower gain values at the 0.01 Hz rotation and a larger percentage of absent cVEMP responses compared with normal-hearing children. Seventy-four percent of hearing-impaired children showed some type of vestibular abnormality when examined with a combination of rotatory and cVEMP testing, in contrast to an abnormality rate of 60\% with cVEMP and a rate of 49\% with rotatory testing alone. 
Conclusions: The observed pediatric age correlations underscore the necessity of age-appropriate normative data to guarantee accurate interpretation of test results. The high percentages of abnormal vestibular test results in hearing-impaired children emphasize the importance of vestibular assessment in these children because the integrity of the vestibular system is a critical factor for motor and psychological development.},
  author       = {Maes, Leen and De Kegel, Alexandra and Van Waelvelde, Hilde and Dhooge, Ingeborg},
  issn         = {0196-0202},
  journal      = {EAR AND HEARING},
  keyword      = {VELOCITY STEP TEST,COCHLEAR IMPLANTATION,TEST-RETEST RELIABILITY,HARMONIC ACCELERATION TEST,PSEUDORANDOM ROTATION TEST,Vestibular assessment,Hearing impaired children,Normative data,Normal hearing children,Rotatory testing,Collic vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP),VESTIBULOOCULAR REFLEX,YOUNG-CHILDREN,DEAF-CHILDREN,CALORIC TEST,END-ORGAN},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {e21--e32},
  title        = {Rotatory and collic vestibular evoked myogenic potential testing in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired children},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/AUD.0b013e3182a6ca91},
  volume       = {35},
  year         = {2014},
}

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