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Role of activin-A in cigarette smoke-induced inflammation and COPD

(2014) EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY JOURNAL. 43(4). p.1028-1041
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Abstract
Objective: Activin-A is a pleiotropic cytokine belonging to the TGF-β superfamily and has been implicated in asthma and pulmonary fibrosis. However, the role of activin-A and its endogenous inhibitor, follistatin, in the pathogenesis of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is unkown. Methods: We first quantified activin-A and follistatin in lungs of air- or CS-exposed mice and in lungs of patients with COPD by immunohistochemistry, ELISA and qRT-PCR. We subsequently studied the effect of CS on primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) in vitro. Next, activin-A signalling was antagonized in vivo by administration of follistatin in mice exposed to air or CS for 4 weeks. Results: Protein levels of activin-A were increased in the airway epithelium of patients with COPD compared with never-smokers and smokers. CS-exposed HBECs expressed higher levels of activin-A and lower levels of follistatin. Both mRNA and protein levels of activin-A were increased in lungs of CS-exposed mice, whereas follistatin levels were reduced upon CS exposure. Importantly, administration of follistatin attenuated the CS-induced increase of inflammatory cells and mediators in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in mice. Conclusions: These results suggest that an imbalance between activin-A and follistatin contributes to the pathogenesis of CS-induced inflammation and COPD.
Keywords
COPD, cigarette smoke, activin-A, OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY-DISEASE, GROWTH-FACTOR-BETA, REGULATORY T-CELLS, IN-VITRO, IMMUNE-RESPONSES, EPITHELIAL-CELLS, GENE-EXPRESSION, FOLLISTATIN, ASTHMA, PROLIFERATION

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Chicago
Verhamme, Fien, Ken Bracke, Gimano D Amatngalim, Geert M Verleden, Geert Van Pottelberge, Pieter S Hiemstra, Guy Joos, and Guy Brusselle. 2014. “Role of activin-A in Cigarette Smoke-induced Inflammation and COPD.” European Respiratory Journal 43 (4): 1028–1041.
APA
Verhamme, F., Bracke, K., Amatngalim, G. D., Verleden, G. M., Van Pottelberge, G., Hiemstra, P. S., Joos, G., et al. (2014). Role of activin-A in cigarette smoke-induced inflammation and COPD. EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY JOURNAL, 43(4), 1028–1041.
Vancouver
1.
Verhamme F, Bracke K, Amatngalim GD, Verleden GM, Van Pottelberge G, Hiemstra PS, et al. Role of activin-A in cigarette smoke-induced inflammation and COPD. EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY JOURNAL. 2014;43(4):1028–41.
MLA
Verhamme, Fien, Ken Bracke, Gimano D Amatngalim, et al. “Role of activin-A in Cigarette Smoke-induced Inflammation and COPD.” EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY JOURNAL 43.4 (2014): 1028–1041. Print.
@article{4221191,
  abstract     = {Objective: Activin-A is a pleiotropic cytokine belonging to the TGF-β superfamily and has been implicated in asthma and pulmonary fibrosis. However, the role of activin-A and its endogenous inhibitor, follistatin, in the pathogenesis of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is unkown. 
Methods: We first quantified activin-A and follistatin in lungs of air- or CS-exposed mice and in lungs of patients with COPD by immunohistochemistry, ELISA and qRT-PCR. We subsequently studied the effect of CS on primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) in vitro. Next, activin-A signalling was antagonized in vivo by administration of follistatin in mice exposed to air or CS for 4 weeks. 
Results: Protein levels of activin-A were increased in the airway epithelium of patients with COPD compared with never-smokers and smokers. CS-exposed HBECs expressed higher levels of activin-A and lower levels of follistatin. Both mRNA and protein levels of activin-A were increased in lungs of CS-exposed mice, whereas follistatin levels were reduced upon CS exposure. Importantly, administration of follistatin attenuated the CS-induced increase of inflammatory cells and mediators in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in mice. 
Conclusions: These results suggest that an imbalance between activin-A and follistatin contributes to the pathogenesis of CS-induced inflammation and COPD.},
  author       = {Verhamme, Fien and Bracke, Ken and Amatngalim, Gimano D and Verleden, Geert M and Van Pottelberge, Geert and Hiemstra, Pieter S and Joos, Guy and Brusselle, Guy},
  issn         = {0903-1936},
  journal      = {EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY JOURNAL},
  keywords     = {COPD,cigarette smoke,activin-A,OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY-DISEASE,GROWTH-FACTOR-BETA,REGULATORY T-CELLS,IN-VITRO,IMMUNE-RESPONSES,EPITHELIAL-CELLS,GENE-EXPRESSION,FOLLISTATIN,ASTHMA,PROLIFERATION},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {1028--1041},
  title        = {Role of activin-A in cigarette smoke-induced inflammation and COPD},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/09031936.00082413},
  volume       = {43},
  year         = {2014},
}

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