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Microscopic aquatic predators strongly affect infection dynamics of a globally emerged pathogen

(2014) CURRENT BIOLOGY. 24(2). p.176-180
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Abstract
Research on emerging infectious wildlife diseases has placed particular emphasis on host-derived barriers to infection and disease. This focus neglects important extrinsic determinants of the host/pathogen dynamic, where all barriers to infection should be considered when ascertaining the determinants of infectivity and pathogenicity of wildlife pathogens [1, 2 and 3]. Those pathogens with free-living stages, such as fungi causing catastrophic wildlife declines on a global scale [4], must confront lengthy exposure to environmental barriers before contact with an uninfected host [5, 6, 7 and 8]. Hostile environmental conditions therefore have the ability to decrease the density of infectious particles, reducing the force of infection and ameliorating the impact as well as the probability of establishing an infection [9]. Here we show that, in nature, the risk of infection and infectious burden of amphibians infected by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) have a significant, site-specific component, and that these correlate with the microfauna present at a site. Experimental infections show that aquatic microfauna can rapidly lower the abundance and density of infectious stages by consuming Bd zoospores, resulting in a significantly reduced probability of infection in anuran tadpoles. Our findings offer new perspectives for explaining the divergent impacts of Bd infection in amphibian assemblages and contribute to our understanding of ecosystem resilience to colonization by novel pathogens.
Keywords
CHYTRID FUNGUS, BATRACHOCHYTRIUM-DENDROBATIDIS, CHYTRIDIOMYCOSIS, PARASITES, SURVIVAL, DAPHNIA, DISEASE, HOST

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MLA
Schmeller, Dirk S., et al. “Microscopic Aquatic Predators Strongly Affect Infection Dynamics of a Globally Emerged Pathogen.” CURRENT BIOLOGY, vol. 24, no. 2, 2014, pp. 176–80, doi:10.1016/j.cub.2013.11.032.
APA
Schmeller, D. S., Blooi, M., Martel, A., Garner, T. W., Fisher, M. C., Azemar, F., … Pasmans, F. (2014). Microscopic aquatic predators strongly affect infection dynamics of a globally emerged pathogen. CURRENT BIOLOGY, 24(2), 176–180. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2013.11.032
Chicago author-date
Schmeller, Dirk S, Mark Blooi, An Martel, Trenton WJ Garner, Matthew C Fisher, Frédéric Azemar, Frances C Clare, et al. 2014. “Microscopic Aquatic Predators Strongly Affect Infection Dynamics of a Globally Emerged Pathogen.” CURRENT BIOLOGY 24 (2): 176–80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2013.11.032.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Schmeller, Dirk S, Mark Blooi, An Martel, Trenton WJ Garner, Matthew C Fisher, Frédéric Azemar, Frances C Clare, Camille Leclerc, Lea Jäger, Michelle Guevara-Nieto, Adeline Loyau, and Frank Pasmans. 2014. “Microscopic Aquatic Predators Strongly Affect Infection Dynamics of a Globally Emerged Pathogen.” CURRENT BIOLOGY 24 (2): 176–180. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2013.11.032.
Vancouver
1.
Schmeller DS, Blooi M, Martel A, Garner TW, Fisher MC, Azemar F, et al. Microscopic aquatic predators strongly affect infection dynamics of a globally emerged pathogen. CURRENT BIOLOGY. 2014;24(2):176–80.
IEEE
[1]
D. S. Schmeller et al., “Microscopic aquatic predators strongly affect infection dynamics of a globally emerged pathogen,” CURRENT BIOLOGY, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 176–180, 2014.
@article{4218119,
  abstract     = {{Research on emerging infectious wildlife diseases has placed particular emphasis on host-derived barriers to infection and disease. This focus neglects important extrinsic determinants of the host/pathogen dynamic, where all barriers to infection should be considered when ascertaining the determinants of infectivity and pathogenicity of wildlife pathogens [1, 2 and 3]. Those pathogens with free-living stages, such as fungi causing catastrophic wildlife declines on a global scale [4], must confront lengthy exposure to environmental barriers before contact with an uninfected host [5, 6, 7 and 8]. Hostile environmental conditions therefore have the ability to decrease the density of infectious particles, reducing the force of infection and ameliorating the impact as well as the probability of establishing an infection [9]. Here we show that, in nature, the risk of infection and infectious burden of amphibians infected by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) have a significant, site-specific component, and that these correlate with the microfauna present at a site. Experimental infections show that aquatic microfauna can rapidly lower the abundance and density of infectious stages by consuming Bd zoospores, resulting in a significantly reduced probability of infection in anuran tadpoles. Our findings offer new perspectives for explaining the divergent impacts of Bd infection in amphibian assemblages and contribute to our understanding of ecosystem resilience to colonization by novel pathogens.}},
  author       = {{Schmeller, Dirk S and Blooi, Mark and Martel, An and Garner, Trenton WJ and Fisher, Matthew C and Azemar, Frédéric and Clare, Frances C and Leclerc, Camille and Jäger, Lea and Guevara-Nieto, Michelle and Loyau, Adeline and Pasmans, Frank}},
  issn         = {{0960-9822}},
  journal      = {{CURRENT BIOLOGY}},
  keywords     = {{CHYTRID FUNGUS,BATRACHOCHYTRIUM-DENDROBATIDIS,CHYTRIDIOMYCOSIS,PARASITES,SURVIVAL,DAPHNIA,DISEASE,HOST}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  number       = {{2}},
  pages        = {{176--180}},
  title        = {{Microscopic aquatic predators strongly affect infection dynamics of a globally emerged pathogen}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2013.11.032}},
  volume       = {{24}},
  year         = {{2014}},
}

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