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Mycotoxin co-occurrence in rice, oat flakes and wheat noodles used as staple foods in Ecuador

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Abstract
The co-occurrence of aflatoxin B-1 (AFB(1)), B-2 (AFB(2)), G(1) (AFG(1)) and G(2) (AFG(2)), ochratoxin A (OTA), deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisin B-1 (FB1), zearalenone (ZEN), and HT-2 and T-2 toxins in the main Ecuadorian staple cereals (rice, oat flakes, and yellow and white wheat noodles) was evaluated. A ultra high performance liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC/TOFMS) method was developed and validated to screen for the presence of these mycotoxins in those cereal matrices. Matrix-matched calibration curves were used to compensate for ion suppression and extraction losses and the recovery values were in agreement with the minimum requirements of Regulation 401/2006/EC (70-110%). For most mycotoxins, the LODs obtained allowed detection in compliance with the maximum permitted levels set in Regulation EC/2006/1881, with the exception of OTA in all cereals and AFB1 in yellow noodles. Extra target analysis of OTA in oat flakes and wheat noodles was performed by HPLC with fluorescence detection. High rates of contamination were observed in paddy rice (23% DON, 23% FB1, 7% AFB(1), 2% AFG(1) and 2% AFG(2)), white wheat noodles (33% DON and 5% OTA) and oat flakes (17% DON, 2% OTA and 2% AFB(1)), whereas the rates of contamination were lower in polished rice (2% AFG(1) and 4% HT-2 toxin) and yellow noodles (5% DON). Low rates of co-occurrence of several mycotoxins were observed only for white wheat noodles (5%) and paddy rice (7%). White noodles were contaminated with DON and/or OTA, while combinations of AFG(1), AFB(1), DON and FB1 were found in paddy rice. Yellow noodles were contaminated with DON only; oat flakes contained DON, OTA or AFB(1), and polished rice was contaminated with AFG(1) and HT-2 toxin.
Keywords
VALIDATION, TRENDS, OCHRATOXIN, ZEARALENONE, TRICHOTHECENES, DEOXYNIVALENOL, CEREALS, PRODUCTS, mycotoxins, cereals, chromatography, LC/MS, CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY

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Chicago
Ortiz Ulloa, Silvia Johana, John Van Camp, Frédéric Mestdagh, Silvana Donoso, and Bruno De Meulenaer. 2013. “Mycotoxin Co-occurrence in Rice, Oat Flakes and Wheat Noodles Used as Staple Foods in Ecuador.” Food Additives and Contaminants Part A-chemistry Analysis Control Exposure & Risk Assessment 30 (12): 2165–2176.
APA
Ortiz Ulloa, S. J., Van Camp, J., Mestdagh, F., Donoso, S., & De Meulenaer, B. (2013). Mycotoxin co-occurrence in rice, oat flakes and wheat noodles used as staple foods in Ecuador. FOOD ADDITIVES AND CONTAMINANTS PART A-CHEMISTRY ANALYSIS CONTROL EXPOSURE & RISK ASSESSMENT, 30(12), 2165–2176.
Vancouver
1.
Ortiz Ulloa SJ, Van Camp J, Mestdagh F, Donoso S, De Meulenaer B. Mycotoxin co-occurrence in rice, oat flakes and wheat noodles used as staple foods in Ecuador. FOOD ADDITIVES AND CONTAMINANTS PART A-CHEMISTRY ANALYSIS CONTROL EXPOSURE & RISK ASSESSMENT. 2013;30(12):2165–76.
MLA
Ortiz Ulloa, Silvia Johana, John Van Camp, Frédéric Mestdagh, et al. “Mycotoxin Co-occurrence in Rice, Oat Flakes and Wheat Noodles Used as Staple Foods in Ecuador.” FOOD ADDITIVES AND CONTAMINANTS PART A-CHEMISTRY ANALYSIS CONTROL EXPOSURE & RISK ASSESSMENT 30.12 (2013): 2165–2176. Print.
@article{4211039,
  abstract     = {The co-occurrence of aflatoxin B-1 (AFB(1)), B-2 (AFB(2)), G(1) (AFG(1)) and G(2) (AFG(2)), ochratoxin A (OTA), deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisin B-1 (FB1), zearalenone (ZEN), and HT-2 and T-2 toxins in the main Ecuadorian staple cereals (rice, oat flakes, and yellow and white wheat noodles) was evaluated. A ultra high performance liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC/TOFMS) method was developed and validated to screen for the presence of these mycotoxins in those cereal matrices. Matrix-matched calibration curves were used to compensate for ion suppression and extraction losses and the recovery values were in agreement with the minimum requirements of Regulation 401/2006/EC (70-110\%). For most mycotoxins, the LODs obtained allowed detection in compliance with the maximum permitted levels set in Regulation EC/2006/1881, with the exception of OTA in all cereals and AFB1 in yellow noodles. Extra target analysis of OTA in oat flakes and wheat noodles was performed by HPLC with fluorescence detection. High rates of contamination were observed in paddy rice (23\% DON, 23\% FB1, 7\% AFB(1), 2\% AFG(1) and 2\% AFG(2)), white wheat noodles (33\% DON and 5\% OTA) and oat flakes (17\% DON, 2\% OTA and 2\% AFB(1)), whereas the rates of contamination were lower in polished rice (2\% AFG(1) and 4\% HT-2 toxin) and yellow noodles (5\% DON). Low rates of co-occurrence of several mycotoxins were observed only for white wheat noodles (5\%) and paddy rice (7\%). White noodles were contaminated with DON and/or OTA, while combinations of AFG(1), AFB(1), DON and FB1 were found in paddy rice. Yellow noodles were contaminated with DON only; oat flakes contained DON, OTA or AFB(1), and polished rice was contaminated with AFG(1) and HT-2 toxin.},
  author       = {Ortiz Ulloa, Silvia Johana and Van Camp, John and Mestdagh, Fr{\'e}d{\'e}ric and Donoso, Silvana and De Meulenaer, Bruno},
  issn         = {1944-0049},
  journal      = {FOOD ADDITIVES AND CONTAMINANTS PART A-CHEMISTRY ANALYSIS CONTROL EXPOSURE \& RISK ASSESSMENT},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {12},
  pages        = {2165--2176},
  title        = {Mycotoxin co-occurrence in rice, oat flakes and wheat noodles used as staple foods in Ecuador},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2013.853228},
  volume       = {30},
  year         = {2013},
}

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