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El Niño–La Niña cycle and recent trends in continental evaporation

(2014) NATURE CLIMATE CHANGE. 4(2). p.122-126
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Abstract
The hydrological cycle is expected to intensify in response to global warming. Yet, little unequivocal evidence of such an acceleration has been found on a global scale. This holds in particular for terrestrial evaporation, the crucial return flow of water from land to atmosphere. Here we use satellite observations to reveal that continental evaporation has increased in northern latitudes, at rates consistent with expectations derived from temperature trends. However, at the global scale, the dynamics of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) have dominated the multi-decadal variability. During El Niño, limitations in terrestrial moisture supply result in vegetation water stress and reduced evaporation in eastern and central Australia, southern Africa and eastern South America. The opposite situation occurs during La Niña. Our results suggest that recent multi-year declines in global average continental evaporation8,9 reflect transitions to El Niño conditions, and are not the consequence of a persistent reorganization of the terrestrial water cycle. Future changes in continental evaporation will be determined by the response of ENSO to changes in global radiative forcing, which still remains highly uncertain.
Keywords
AVHRR, MODIS, La Niña, El Niño, INTENSIFICATION, VARIABILITY, OCEAN, GLOBAL WATER CYCLE, PRECIPITATION, CLIMATE, evaporation

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Citation

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MLA
Gonzalez Miralles, Diego, Martinus van den Berg, John H Gash, et al. “El Niño–La Niña Cycle and Recent Trends in Continental Evaporation.” NATURE CLIMATE CHANGE 4.2 (2014): 122–126. Print.
APA
Gonzalez Miralles, D., van den Berg, M., Gash, J. H., Parinussa, R. M., de Jeu, R. A., Beck, H. E., Holmes, T. R., et al. (2014). El Niño–La Niña cycle and recent trends in continental evaporation. NATURE CLIMATE CHANGE, 4(2), 122–126.
Chicago author-date
Gonzalez Miralles, Diego, Martinus van den Berg, John H Gash, Robert M Parinussa, Richard AM de Jeu, Hylke E Beck, Thomas RH Holmes, et al. 2014. “El Niño–La Niña Cycle and Recent Trends in Continental Evaporation.” Nature Climate Change 4 (2): 122–126.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Gonzalez Miralles, Diego, Martinus van den Berg, John H Gash, Robert M Parinussa, Richard AM de Jeu, Hylke E Beck, Thomas RH Holmes, Carlos Jiménez, Niko Verhoest, Wouter A Dorigo, Adriaan J Teuling, and A Johannes Dolman. 2014. “El Niño–La Niña Cycle and Recent Trends in Continental Evaporation.” Nature Climate Change 4 (2): 122–126.
Vancouver
1.
Gonzalez Miralles D, van den Berg M, Gash JH, Parinussa RM, de Jeu RA, Beck HE, et al. El Niño–La Niña cycle and recent trends in continental evaporation. NATURE CLIMATE CHANGE. 2014;4(2):122–6.
IEEE
[1]
D. Gonzalez Miralles et al., “El Niño–La Niña cycle and recent trends in continental evaporation,” NATURE CLIMATE CHANGE, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 122–126, 2014.
@article{4210353,
  abstract     = {The hydrological cycle is expected to intensify in response to global warming. Yet, little unequivocal evidence of such an acceleration has been found on a global scale. This holds in particular for terrestrial evaporation, the crucial return flow of water from land to atmosphere. Here we use satellite observations to reveal that continental evaporation has increased in northern latitudes, at rates consistent with expectations derived from temperature trends. However, at the global scale, the dynamics of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) have dominated the multi-decadal variability. During El Niño, limitations in terrestrial moisture supply result in vegetation water stress and reduced evaporation in eastern and central Australia, southern Africa and eastern South America. The opposite situation occurs during La Niña. Our results suggest that recent multi-year declines in global average continental evaporation8,9 reflect transitions to El Niño conditions, and are not the consequence of a persistent reorganization of the terrestrial water cycle. Future changes in continental evaporation will be determined by the response of ENSO to changes in global radiative forcing, which still remains highly uncertain.},
  author       = {Gonzalez Miralles, Diego and van den Berg, Martinus and Gash, John H and Parinussa, Robert M and de Jeu, Richard AM and Beck, Hylke E and Holmes, Thomas RH and Jiménez, Carlos and Verhoest, Niko and Dorigo, Wouter A and Teuling, Adriaan J and Dolman, A Johannes},
  issn         = {1758-678X},
  journal      = {NATURE CLIMATE CHANGE},
  keywords     = {AVHRR,MODIS,La Niña,El Niño,INTENSIFICATION,VARIABILITY,OCEAN,GLOBAL WATER CYCLE,PRECIPITATION,CLIMATE,evaporation},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {122--126},
  title        = {El Niño–La Niña cycle and recent trends in continental evaporation},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2068},
  volume       = {4},
  year         = {2014},
}

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