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Effects of soil characteristics, machine weight and traffic intensity on forest soil compaction

Evy Ampoorter (UGent) , Lotte Van Nevel (UGent) , Bruno De Vos, Martin Hermy (UGent) and Kris Verheyen (UGent)
Author
Organization
Abstract
The last decade, in forest harvesting more and more use is made of specialized machines, such as harvesters and forwarders. However, these machines, among other things time efficient and safer to work with, normally have a great weight of which the impact on the soil should not be underestimated. Therefore, increasingly more attention has been paid to the impact of mechanized harvesting on the forest ecosystem in general and the soil in particular. However, research often takes place under different circumstances of soil, machine type used, weather conditions, traffic intensity et cetera so that results are difficult to compare. In an integrated experiment (performed in Flandres, Belgium) the effect of soil texture, soil water content, machine weight and traffic intensity on the degree of soil compaction is being examined. Eight forest stands were chosen on four soil textures (sand, sandy loam, loam, alluvial clay), in each case performing the same experiment in winter (high soil water content, 19-20 February 2007) and in summer (low soil water content, August-September 2007). For selection, certain criteria were used: stands must be close to eachother (same weather conditions), no harvesting activities may be performed in the last 10 years and tree distance must be large enough so that no trees have to be felt to alow machines to pass. Two machines are used: a New Holland TCE50 tractor, 1460 kg, weighted to 1880 kg and a John Deere 640D grapple skidder, 11800 kg, weighted with a concrete block to 14300 kg. In each stand eight trails of 40 meters are marked out, four for the winter, respectively the summer experiment. Of these four trails, two trails are provided for each machine, one to drive one passage back and forth and one to drive five passages back and forth. Several soil physical variables are measured to quantify the degree of soil compaction. Reference measurements are made on the trails before the experiment. After passage of the machines, the same soil variables are measured on the trails within and between the wheel tracks. Soil samples are taken from depth intervals 0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm with Kopeckey soil cores. After weighing, the samples are dried (24h, 105°C) and weighed again in order to estimate bulk density and the soil water content. A subset of the samples remains undisturbed in the Kopeckey soil cores and are analysed for saturated hydraulic conductivity and the pF-curve. With a penetrologger, penetration resistance of the soil is measured to a depth of 80 cm. Through the process of soil compaction, pore volume and continuity are also influenced, what may alter gas diffusion rate. As this is a very sensitive indicator for soil compaction, in a later phase measurements of CO²-concentrations in the soil profile will be performed. Two poles and a 4m long slat, placed across the width of the skid trail are used to examine the depth of the ruts. Each 10 cm a measurement is made of the penetration resistance and the vertical distance between soil and slat. In future, a trench will be dug across the width of the skid trails to evaluate the impression of the different soil layers. In each stand a part of each skid trail is marked and will be protected from perturbation at future harvesting activities. The aim is to monitor the soil physical properties in order to estimate the recovery rate and to examine the response of the biotic variables, such as fauna, flora, regeneration,…Results of the winter experiment are now (partially) available but still have to be processed.

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Chicago
Ampoorter, Evy, Lotte Van Nevel, Bruno De Vos, Martin Hermy, and Kris Verheyen. 2007. “Effects of Soil Characteristics, Machine Weight and Traffic Intensity on Forest Soil Compaction.” In Forest Engineering, 3rd Conference, Abstracts.
APA
Ampoorter, E., Van Nevel, L., De Vos, B., Hermy, M., & Verheyen, K. (2007). Effects of soil characteristics, machine weight and traffic intensity on forest soil compaction. Forest Engineering, 3rd Conference, Abstracts. Presented at the 3rd Forest Engineering Conference.
Vancouver
1.
Ampoorter E, Van Nevel L, De Vos B, Hermy M, Verheyen K. Effects of soil characteristics, machine weight and traffic intensity on forest soil compaction. Forest Engineering, 3rd Conference, Abstracts. 2007.
MLA
Ampoorter, Evy, Lotte Van Nevel, Bruno De Vos, et al. “Effects of Soil Characteristics, Machine Weight and Traffic Intensity on Forest Soil Compaction.” Forest Engineering, 3rd Conference, Abstracts. 2007. Print.
@inproceedings{4207685,
  abstract     = {The last decade, in forest harvesting more and more use is made of specialized machines, such as harvesters and forwarders. However, these machines, among other things time efficient and safer to work with, normally have a great weight of which the impact on the soil should not be underestimated. Therefore, increasingly more attention has been paid to the impact of mechanized harvesting on the forest ecosystem in general and the soil in particular. However, research often takes place under different circumstances of soil, machine type used, weather conditions, traffic intensity et cetera so that results are difficult to compare.
In an integrated experiment (performed in Flandres, Belgium) the effect of soil texture, soil water content, machine weight and traffic intensity on the degree of soil compaction is being examined. Eight forest stands were chosen on four soil textures (sand, sandy loam, loam, alluvial clay), in each case performing the same experiment in winter (high soil water content, 19-20 February 2007) and in summer (low soil water content, August-September 2007). For selection, certain criteria were used: stands must be close to eachother (same weather conditions), no harvesting activities may be performed in the last 10 years and tree distance must be large enough so that no trees have to be felt to alow machines to pass. Two machines are used: a New Holland TCE50 tractor, 1460 kg, weighted to 1880 kg and a John Deere 640D grapple skidder, 11800 kg, weighted with a concrete block to 14300 kg. In each stand eight trails of 40 meters are marked out, four for the winter, respectively the summer experiment. Of these four trails, two trails are provided for each machine, one to drive one passage back and forth and one to drive five passages back and forth.
Several soil physical variables are measured to quantify the degree of soil compaction. Reference measurements are made on the trails before the experiment. After passage of the machines, the same soil variables are measured on the trails within and between the wheel tracks. Soil samples are taken from depth intervals 0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm with Kopeckey soil cores. After weighing, the samples are dried (24h, 105{\textdegree}C) and weighed again in order to estimate bulk density and the soil water content. A subset of the samples remains undisturbed in the Kopeckey soil cores and are analysed for saturated hydraulic conductivity and the pF-curve. With a penetrologger, penetration resistance of the soil is measured to a depth of 80 cm. Through the process of soil compaction, pore volume and continuity are also influenced, what may alter gas diffusion rate. As this is a very sensitive indicator for soil compaction, in a later phase measurements of CO{\texttwosuperior}-concentrations in the soil profile will be performed. Two poles and a 4m long slat, placed across the width of the skid trail are used to examine the depth of the ruts. Each 10 cm a measurement is made of the penetration resistance and the vertical distance between soil and slat. In future, a trench will be dug across the width of the skid trails to evaluate the impression of the different soil layers. In each stand a part of each skid trail is marked and will be protected from perturbation at future harvesting activities. The aim is to monitor the soil physical properties in order to estimate the recovery rate and to examine the response of the biotic variables, such as fauna, flora, regeneration,{\textellipsis}Results of the winter experiment are now (partially) available but still have to be processed.},
  author       = {Ampoorter, Evy and Van Nevel, Lotte and De Vos, Bruno and Hermy, Martin and Verheyen, Kris},
  booktitle    = {Forest Engineering, 3rd Conference, Abstracts},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {Mont-Tremblant, QC, Canada},
  title        = {Effects of soil characteristics, machine weight and traffic intensity on forest soil compaction},
  year         = {2007},
}