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Invasion of an asexual American water flea clone throughout Africa and rapid displacement of a native sibling species

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Abstract
The huge ecological and economic impact of biological invasions creates an urgent need for knowledge of traits that make invading species successful and factors helping indigenous populations to resist displacement by invading species or genotypes. High genetic diversity is generally considered to be advantageous in both processes. Combined with sex, it allows rapid evolution and adaptation to changing environments. We combined paleogenetic analysis with continent-wide survey of genetic diversity at nuclear and mitochondrial loci to reconstruct the invasion history of a single asexual American water flea clone (hybrid Daphnia pulex X Daphnia pulicaria) in Africa. Within 60 years of the original introduction of this invader, it displaced the genetically diverse, sexual population of native D. pulex in Lake Naivasha (Kenya), despite a formidable numerical advantage of the local population and continuous replenishment from a large dormant egg bank. Currently, the invading clone has spread throughout the range of native African D. pulex, where it appears to be the only occurring genotype. The absence of genetic variation did not hamper either the continent-wide establishment of this exotic lineage or the effective displacement of an indigenous and genetically diverse sibling species.
Keywords
Daphnia pulex, ancient DNA, extinction, paleogenetics, parthenogenesis, sex, DAPHNIA-PULEX, CHANGING ENVIRONMENT, CRYPTIC INVASION, LOCAL ADAPTATION, LAKE NAIVASHA, DORMANT EGGS, EAST-AFRICA, EXTINCTION, DISPERSAL, CLADOCERA

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MLA
Mergeay, Joachim, Dirk Verschuren, and Luc De Meester. “Invasion of an Asexual American Water Flea Clone Throughout Africa and Rapid Displacement of a Native Sibling Species.” PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 273.1603 (2006): 2839–2844. Print.
APA
Mergeay, J., Verschuren, D., & De Meester, L. (2006). Invasion of an asexual American water flea clone throughout Africa and rapid displacement of a native sibling species. PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, 273(1603), 2839–2844.
Chicago author-date
Mergeay, Joachim, Dirk Verschuren, and Luc De Meester. 2006. “Invasion of an Asexual American Water Flea Clone Throughout Africa and Rapid Displacement of a Native Sibling Species.” Proceedings of the Royal Society B-biological Sciences 273 (1603): 2839–2844.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Mergeay, Joachim, Dirk Verschuren, and Luc De Meester. 2006. “Invasion of an Asexual American Water Flea Clone Throughout Africa and Rapid Displacement of a Native Sibling Species.” Proceedings of the Royal Society B-biological Sciences 273 (1603): 2839–2844.
Vancouver
1.
Mergeay J, Verschuren D, De Meester L. Invasion of an asexual American water flea clone throughout Africa and rapid displacement of a native sibling species. PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 2006;273(1603):2839–44.
IEEE
[1]
J. Mergeay, D. Verschuren, and L. De Meester, “Invasion of an asexual American water flea clone throughout Africa and rapid displacement of a native sibling species,” PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, vol. 273, no. 1603, pp. 2839–2844, 2006.
@article{419813,
  abstract     = {The huge ecological and economic impact of biological invasions creates an urgent need for knowledge of traits that make invading species successful and factors helping indigenous populations to resist displacement by invading species or genotypes. High genetic diversity is generally considered to be advantageous in both processes. Combined with sex, it allows rapid evolution and adaptation to changing environments.
We combined paleogenetic analysis with continent-wide survey of genetic diversity at nuclear and mitochondrial loci to reconstruct the invasion history of a single asexual American water flea clone (hybrid Daphnia pulex X Daphnia pulicaria) in Africa. Within 60 years of the original introduction of this invader, it displaced the genetically diverse, sexual population of native D. pulex in Lake Naivasha (Kenya), despite a formidable numerical advantage of the local population and continuous replenishment from a large dormant egg bank. Currently, the invading clone has spread throughout the range of native African D. pulex, where it appears to be the only occurring genotype.
The absence of genetic variation did not hamper either the continent-wide establishment of this exotic lineage or the effective displacement of an indigenous and genetically diverse sibling species.},
  author       = {Mergeay, Joachim and Verschuren, Dirk and De Meester, Luc},
  issn         = {0962-8452},
  journal      = {PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES},
  keywords     = {Daphnia pulex,ancient DNA,extinction,paleogenetics,parthenogenesis,sex,DAPHNIA-PULEX,CHANGING ENVIRONMENT,CRYPTIC INVASION,LOCAL ADAPTATION,LAKE NAIVASHA,DORMANT EGGS,EAST-AFRICA,EXTINCTION,DISPERSAL,CLADOCERA},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1603},
  pages        = {2839--2844},
  title        = {Invasion of an asexual American water flea clone throughout Africa and rapid displacement of a native sibling species},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2006.3661},
  volume       = {273},
  year         = {2006},
}

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