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Sexual quality of life after hormonal and surgical treatment, including phalloplasty, in men with micropenis: a review

Nina Callens (UGent) , GRETA DE CUYPERE (UGent) , Eline Van Hoecke (UGent) , Guy T'Sjoen (UGent) , Stan Monstrey (UGent) , Martine Cools (UGent) and Piet Hoebeke (UGent)
(2013) JOURNAL OF SEXUAL MEDICINE. 10(12). p.2890-2903
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Organization
Abstract
Introduction: The term micropenis encompasses a range of congenital and acquired conditions that result in an abnormally short penis. Small penis size may persist into adulthood, becoming a major cause of dissatisfaction. Aim: To review the literature pertaining to the effects of hormonal and surgical treatment on psychosexual functioning and quality of life (QoL) in individuals with micropenis who were raised male. Main Outcome Measures: Long-term psychosexual and QoL outcomes after hormonal and surgical treatment, including phalloplasty. Methods: PubMed search for relevant publications (1955-2012) on the role of hormonal and surgical treatment in sexual QoL in adult men with micropenis. Results: Multiple variations in the etiology of micropenis make it difficult to draw firm conclusions that fit all of the patients within this disparate population. However, the literature review supports the conclusions that (i) male gender assignment is preferable for most 46,XY infants with congenital micropenis because of the likelihood of male gender development and genitosexual function; (ii) small penis size persisting into adulthood and dissatisfaction with genital appearance jeopardize sexual QoL; (iii) there is no known intervention, apart from phalloplasty, to guarantee that the penis will become normal in size; (iv) early data suggest that the phalloplasty technique considered the gold standard for gender reassignment in the transgender population can also be transferred to 46,XY patients with micropenis; (v) psychological support should be an integral part of management in order to alleviate the distress and impairment of QoL experienced by these individuals. Conclusions: Further publication of series with large numbers and longer follow-up is needed. Specific outcome kits should be designed to measure more precisely patients' degrees of satisfaction with cosmetic, anatomical, and functional variables. Only if health-care professionals fully appreciate the impact of this condition can optimal care be provided.
Keywords
GENDER IDENTITY, Disorder of Sex Development, Micropenis, Male Genitoplasty, Phalloplasty, Reconstructive Penile Surgery, Hormonal Treatment, Sexuality, Quality of Life, Review, PSYCHOSEXUAL FOLLOW-UP, RADIAL FOREARM FLAP, PENILE SIZE, TESTOSTERONE TREATMENT, XY DISORDERS, MALES, RECONSTRUCTION, INDIVIDUALS, MANAGEMENT

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Chicago
Callens, Nina, GRETA DE CUYPERE, Eline Van Hoecke, Guy T’Sjoen, Stan Monstrey, Martine Cools, and Piet Hoebeke. 2013. “Sexual Quality of Life After Hormonal and Surgical Treatment, Including Phalloplasty, in Men with Micropenis: a Review.” Journal of Sexual Medicine 10 (12): 2890–2903.
APA
Callens, N., DE CUYPERE, G., Van Hoecke, E., T’Sjoen, G., Monstrey, S., Cools, M., & Hoebeke, P. (2013). Sexual quality of life after hormonal and surgical treatment, including phalloplasty, in men with micropenis: a review. JOURNAL OF SEXUAL MEDICINE, 10(12), 2890–2903.
Vancouver
1.
Callens N, DE CUYPERE G, Van Hoecke E, T’Sjoen G, Monstrey S, Cools M, et al. Sexual quality of life after hormonal and surgical treatment, including phalloplasty, in men with micropenis: a review. JOURNAL OF SEXUAL MEDICINE. 2013;10(12):2890–903.
MLA
Callens, Nina, GRETA DE CUYPERE, Eline Van Hoecke, et al. “Sexual Quality of Life After Hormonal and Surgical Treatment, Including Phalloplasty, in Men with Micropenis: a Review.” JOURNAL OF SEXUAL MEDICINE 10.12 (2013): 2890–2903. Print.
@article{4196088,
  abstract     = {Introduction: The term micropenis encompasses a range of congenital and acquired conditions that result in an abnormally short penis. Small penis size may persist into adulthood, becoming a major cause of dissatisfaction. 
Aim: To review the literature pertaining to the effects of hormonal and surgical treatment on psychosexual functioning and quality of life (QoL) in individuals with micropenis who were raised male. 
Main Outcome Measures: Long-term psychosexual and QoL outcomes after hormonal and surgical treatment, including phalloplasty. 
Methods: PubMed search for relevant publications (1955-2012) on the role of hormonal and surgical treatment in sexual QoL in adult men with micropenis. 
Results: Multiple variations in the etiology of micropenis make it difficult to draw firm conclusions that fit all of the patients within this disparate population. However, the literature review supports the conclusions that (i) male gender assignment is preferable for most 46,XY infants with congenital micropenis because of the likelihood of male gender development and genitosexual function; (ii) small penis size persisting into adulthood and dissatisfaction with genital appearance jeopardize sexual QoL; (iii) there is no known intervention, apart from phalloplasty, to guarantee that the penis will become normal in size; (iv) early data suggest that the phalloplasty technique considered the gold standard for gender reassignment in the transgender population can also be transferred to 46,XY patients with micropenis; (v) psychological support should be an integral part of management in order to alleviate the distress and impairment of QoL experienced by these individuals. 
Conclusions: Further publication of series with large numbers and longer follow-up is needed. Specific outcome kits should be designed to measure more precisely patients' degrees of satisfaction with cosmetic, anatomical, and functional variables. Only if health-care professionals fully appreciate the impact of this condition can optimal care be provided.},
  author       = {Callens, Nina and DE CUYPERE, GRETA and Van Hoecke, Eline and T'Sjoen, Guy and Monstrey, Stan and Cools, Martine and Hoebeke, Piet},
  issn         = {1743-6095},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF SEXUAL MEDICINE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {12},
  pages        = {2890--2903},
  title        = {Sexual quality of life after hormonal and surgical treatment, including phalloplasty, in men with micropenis: a review},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jsm.12298},
  volume       = {10},
  year         = {2013},
}

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