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The effect of intramammary infection with coagulase-negative staphylococci in early lactating heifers on milk yield throughout first lactation revisited

(2013) JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE. 96(8). p.5095-5105
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Abstract
The objective of this study was to further scrutinize the previously found positive association between intramammary infection (IMI) caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) in early lactating heifers and test-day daily milk yield (MY) throughout first lactation, with a specific focus on the effect of the heifers' genetically determined milk production levels and the incidence of clinical mastitis. Two precise longitudinal data sets were analyzed using a series of statistical models including potential confounding and intermediate variables. The final database included the IMI status at calving, composite milk somatic cell count (SCC) and MY records at test day up to 285 d in milk (DIM), farmer-recorded clinical mastitis (CM) cases between 14 and 285 DIM, estimated new IMI incidence based on a SCC threshold of 100,000 cells/mL between 14 and 285 DIM, DIM, average 305-d MY at the herd level, and the heifers' genetic merit for MY from 240 dairy heifers from 29 dairy herds. Seventy-one (29.6%) early lactating heifers were noninfected, 108 heifers (45.0%) were CNS infected, and 61 heifers (25.4%) were infected with any major pathogen. The positive effect of CNS IMI in early lactation on test-day MY was estimated at 1.32 kg/d using a first basic mixed regression model. Correcting for the confounder genetic merit for MY reduced this effect to 1.17 kg. Interestingly, taking into account the confounding effect of herd resulted in an increase of the estimate from 1.32 to 2.2 kg/d. The positive effect of CNS IMI in early lactation on MY after correcting the model for both confounders was estimated at 2.05 kg/d. Heifers infected with CNS in the first DIM tended to have fewer CM cases throughout lactation compared with the noninfected herd mates. Including the intermediate variable CM in the model explained 0.16 kg/d of the corrected effect of 2.05 kg/d. Inclusion of test-day SCC, another intermediate variable, however, increased the estimate by 0.11 kg/d. With an appropriate correction for several confounders and biologically understood intermediate variables such as CM, test-day SCC, and new IMI based on SCC threshold of 100,000 cells/mL, an unexplained test-day MY difference between CNS-infected and noninfected heifers of 2.0 kg/d remained.
Keywords
heifer, coagulase-negative staphylococci, intramammary infection, milk yield, SOMATIC-CELL COUNT, CLINICAL MASTITIS, DAIRY HEIFERS, RISK-FACTORS, ENVIRONMENTAL MASTITIS, UDDER HEALTH, COWS, IMPACT, HERD, PATHOGENS

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Chicago
Piepers, Sofie, Ynte Hein Schukken, Pieter Passchyn, and Sarne De Vliegher. 2013. “The Effect of Intramammary Infection with Coagulase-negative Staphylococci in Early Lactating Heifers on Milk Yield Throughout First Lactation Revisited.” Journal of Dairy Science 96 (8): 5095–5105.
APA
Piepers, S., Schukken, Y. H., Passchyn, P., & De Vliegher, S. (2013). The effect of intramammary infection with coagulase-negative staphylococci in early lactating heifers on milk yield throughout first lactation revisited. JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE, 96(8), 5095–5105.
Vancouver
1.
Piepers S, Schukken YH, Passchyn P, De Vliegher S. The effect of intramammary infection with coagulase-negative staphylococci in early lactating heifers on milk yield throughout first lactation revisited. JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE. 2013;96(8):5095–105.
MLA
Piepers, Sofie, Ynte Hein Schukken, Pieter Passchyn, et al. “The Effect of Intramammary Infection with Coagulase-negative Staphylococci in Early Lactating Heifers on Milk Yield Throughout First Lactation Revisited.” JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE 96.8 (2013): 5095–5105. Print.
@article{4173312,
  abstract     = {The objective of this study was to further scrutinize the previously found positive association between intramammary infection (IMI) caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) in early lactating heifers and test-day daily milk yield (MY) throughout first lactation, with a specific focus on the effect of the heifers' genetically determined milk production levels and the incidence of clinical mastitis. Two precise longitudinal data sets were analyzed using a series of statistical models including potential confounding and intermediate variables. The final database included the IMI status at calving, composite milk somatic cell count (SCC) and MY records at test day up to 285 d in milk (DIM), farmer-recorded clinical mastitis (CM) cases between 14 and 285 DIM, estimated new IMI incidence based on a SCC threshold of 100,000 cells/mL between 14 and 285 DIM, DIM, average 305-d MY at the herd level, and the heifers' genetic merit for MY from 240 dairy heifers from 29 dairy herds. Seventy-one (29.6\%) early lactating heifers were noninfected, 108 heifers (45.0\%) were CNS infected, and 61 heifers (25.4\%) were infected with any major pathogen. The positive effect of CNS IMI in early lactation on test-day MY was estimated at 1.32 kg/d using a first basic mixed regression model. Correcting for the confounder genetic merit for MY reduced this effect to 1.17 kg. Interestingly, taking into account the confounding effect of herd resulted in an increase of the estimate from 1.32 to 2.2 kg/d. The positive effect of CNS IMI in early lactation on MY after correcting the model for both confounders was estimated at 2.05 kg/d. Heifers infected with CNS in the first DIM tended to have fewer CM cases throughout lactation compared with the noninfected herd mates. Including the intermediate variable CM in the model explained 0.16 kg/d of the corrected effect of 2.05 kg/d. Inclusion of test-day SCC, another intermediate variable, however, increased the estimate by 0.11 kg/d. With an appropriate correction for several confounders and biologically understood intermediate variables such as CM, test-day SCC, and new IMI based on SCC threshold of 100,000 cells/mL, an unexplained test-day MY difference between CNS-infected and noninfected heifers of 2.0 kg/d remained.},
  author       = {Piepers, Sofie and Schukken, Ynte Hein and Passchyn, Pieter and De Vliegher, Sarne},
  issn         = {0022-0302},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE},
  keyword      = {heifer,coagulase-negative staphylococci,intramammary infection,milk yield,SOMATIC-CELL COUNT,CLINICAL MASTITIS,DAIRY HEIFERS,RISK-FACTORS,ENVIRONMENTAL MASTITIS,UDDER HEALTH,COWS,IMPACT,HERD,PATHOGENS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {8},
  pages        = {5095--5105},
  title        = {The effect of intramammary infection with coagulase-negative staphylococci in early lactating heifers on milk yield throughout first lactation revisited},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2013-6644},
  volume       = {96},
  year         = {2013},
}

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