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Occurrence and pathology of mycotoxins in commercial parrot feeds

Shaoji Li (UGent) , Emmanuel Njumbe Ediage (UGent) , Sarah De Saeger (UGent) , Lieven Van Waeyenberghe (UGent) , An Garmyn (UGent) , Marc Verlinden (UGent) , Richard Ducatelle (UGent) , Siska Croubels (UGent) , Freddy Haesebrouck (UGent) , Frank Pasmans (UGent) , et al.
(2013) WORLD MYCOTOXIN JOURNAL. 6(4). p.449-453
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Abstract
Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites of fungi. Animal feeds can be easily infected by fungi during production and storage, resulting in mycotoxin contamination. This study was performed to evaluate the possible health risks of mycotoxin-contaminated feed for cockatiels. The occurrence of mycotoxins in commercial parrot feeds (5 seed mixes and 5 pelleted feeds) was investigated by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The following 12 mycotoxins were detected: zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, fusarenon X, aflatoxin B-1, sterigmatocystin, alternariol, alternariol methylether, fumonisin B-1, fumonisin B-3, and ochratoxin A. Zearalenone was the most prevalent. Pathological effects after 21 days feeding mycotoxin-contaminated diets were examined in an in vivo trial with 3 groups of 5 cockatiels: group 1 (control) was fed a non-contaminated pelleted feed; group 2 was fed a pelleted feed containing zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, and fumonisins; and group 3 was fed a pelleted feed containing fumonisins. Average body weight gain and relative organ weight were not significantly different between the treatment groups and the control group. Apoptosis of renal tubular cells, diarrhoea, reduced appetite, enlargement of liver, kidney and proventriculus were occasionally observed in the birds from groups 2 and 3. In summary, contamination with mycotoxins is common in parrot feeds. The mycotoxin levels did not reach toxic levels, but might pose a potential threat to some sensitive cockatiels.
Keywords
mycotoxin, LC-MS/MS, parrot feed, cockatiel, feeding trial, MONILIFORME CULTURE MATERIAL, LC-MS/MS METHOD, FUMONISIN B-1, PET FOODS, APOPTOSIS, CELLS

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MLA
Li, Shaoji, Emmanuel Njumbe Ediage, Sarah De Saeger, et al. “Occurrence and Pathology of Mycotoxins in Commercial Parrot Feeds.” WORLD MYCOTOXIN JOURNAL 6.4 (2013): 449–453. Print.
APA
Li, Shaoji, Njumbe Ediage, E., De Saeger, S., Van Waeyenberghe, L., Garmyn, A., Verlinden, M., Ducatelle, R., et al. (2013). Occurrence and pathology of mycotoxins in commercial parrot feeds. WORLD MYCOTOXIN JOURNAL, 6(4), 449–453.
Chicago author-date
Li, Shaoji, Emmanuel Njumbe Ediage, Sarah De Saeger, Lieven Van Waeyenberghe, An Garmyn, Marc Verlinden, Richard Ducatelle, et al. 2013. “Occurrence and Pathology of Mycotoxins in Commercial Parrot Feeds.” World Mycotoxin Journal 6 (4): 449–453.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Li, Shaoji, Emmanuel Njumbe Ediage, Sarah De Saeger, Lieven Van Waeyenberghe, An Garmyn, Marc Verlinden, Richard Ducatelle, Siska Croubels, Freddy Haesebrouck, Frank Pasmans, and An Martel. 2013. “Occurrence and Pathology of Mycotoxins in Commercial Parrot Feeds.” World Mycotoxin Journal 6 (4): 449–453.
Vancouver
1.
Li S, Njumbe Ediage E, De Saeger S, Van Waeyenberghe L, Garmyn A, Verlinden M, et al. Occurrence and pathology of mycotoxins in commercial parrot feeds. WORLD MYCOTOXIN JOURNAL. 2013;6(4):449–53.
IEEE
[1]
S. Li et al., “Occurrence and pathology of mycotoxins in commercial parrot feeds,” WORLD MYCOTOXIN JOURNAL, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 449–453, 2013.
@article{4170742,
  abstract     = {Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites of fungi. Animal feeds can be easily infected by fungi during production and storage, resulting in mycotoxin contamination. This study was performed to evaluate the possible health risks of mycotoxin-contaminated feed for cockatiels. The occurrence of mycotoxins in commercial parrot feeds (5 seed mixes and 5 pelleted feeds) was investigated by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The following 12 mycotoxins were detected: zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, fusarenon X, aflatoxin B-1, sterigmatocystin, alternariol, alternariol methylether, fumonisin B-1, fumonisin B-3, and ochratoxin A. Zearalenone was the most prevalent. Pathological effects after 21 days feeding mycotoxin-contaminated diets were examined in an in vivo trial with 3 groups of 5 cockatiels: group 1 (control) was fed a non-contaminated pelleted feed; group 2 was fed a pelleted feed containing zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, and fumonisins; and group 3 was fed a pelleted feed containing fumonisins. Average body weight gain and relative organ weight were not significantly different between the treatment groups and the control group. Apoptosis of renal tubular cells, diarrhoea, reduced appetite, enlargement of liver, kidney and proventriculus were occasionally observed in the birds from groups 2 and 3. In summary, contamination with mycotoxins is common in parrot feeds. The mycotoxin levels did not reach toxic levels, but might pose a potential threat to some sensitive cockatiels.},
  author       = {Li, Shaoji and Njumbe Ediage, Emmanuel and De Saeger, Sarah and Van Waeyenberghe, Lieven and Garmyn, An and Verlinden, Marc and Ducatelle, Richard and Croubels, Siska and Haesebrouck, Freddy and Pasmans, Frank and Martel, An},
  issn         = {1875-0710},
  journal      = {WORLD MYCOTOXIN JOURNAL},
  keywords     = {mycotoxin,LC-MS/MS,parrot feed,cockatiel,feeding trial,MONILIFORME CULTURE MATERIAL,LC-MS/MS METHOD,FUMONISIN B-1,PET FOODS,APOPTOSIS,CELLS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {449--453},
  title        = {Occurrence and pathology of mycotoxins in commercial parrot feeds},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3920/WMJ2013.1570},
  volume       = {6},
  year         = {2013},
}

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