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Improving foliar applications of entomopthogenic nematodes by selecting adjuvants and spray nozzles

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Abstract
This study explores the influence of a selection of adjuvants and of three different nozzle sizes on the foliar application of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs). Two EPN species were studied: Steinernema feltiae and Steinernema carpocapsae. A viability test of EPNs suspended in different solutions of adjuvants showed that all selected alcohol ethoxylates and an alkyl polysaccharide have an immobilising effect on the selected nematode species. In a sedimentation test, xanthan gum proved to be the only adjuvant in a broad selection, capable of delaying sedimentation of EPNs in suspension. Without xanthan gum, sedimentation of S. carpocapsae and S. feltiae was noticeable after 20 and 10 minutes, respectively. When xanthan gum (0.3 g/L) was added to the suspension, no signs of sedimentation were noticed after 20 minutes with both EPN species. An ISO 02 flat fan nozzle can clog when spraying S. carpocapsae. A deposition test determined that an ISO 04 standard flat fan nozzle provides a higher relative deposition on cauliflower leaves and is therefore a better nozzle choice than the bigger ISO 08 standard flat fan nozzle for spraying S. carpocapsae. The addition of a spreading agent improved the deposition of S. carpocapsae. Adding xanthan gum to the EPN-spreading agent mixtures did not further improve deposition.
Keywords
sedimentation, viability, deposition, Steinernematidae, LARVAE PLUTELLA-XYLOSTELLA, STEINERNEMA-CARPOCAPSAE, RHABDITIDA STEINERNEMATIDAE, DEPOSITION, PERFORMANCE, REFLECTION, VEGETABLES, VIABILITY, SURFACES, VOLUME, spray nozzle

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Chicago
Beck, Bert, Eva Brusselman, David Nuyttens, Maurice Moens, S Pollet, F Temmerman, and Pieter Spanoghe. 2013. “Improving Foliar Applications of Entomopthogenic Nematodes by Selecting Adjuvants and Spray Nozzles.” Biocontrol Science and Technology 23 (5): 507–520.
APA
Beck, Bert, Brusselman, E., Nuyttens, D., Moens, M., Pollet, S., Temmerman, F., & Spanoghe, P. (2013). Improving foliar applications of entomopthogenic nematodes by selecting adjuvants and spray nozzles. BIOCONTROL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, 23(5), 507–520.
Vancouver
1.
Beck B, Brusselman E, Nuyttens D, Moens M, Pollet S, Temmerman F, et al. Improving foliar applications of entomopthogenic nematodes by selecting adjuvants and spray nozzles. BIOCONTROL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. 2013;23(5):507–20.
MLA
Beck, Bert, Eva Brusselman, David Nuyttens, et al. “Improving Foliar Applications of Entomopthogenic Nematodes by Selecting Adjuvants and Spray Nozzles.” BIOCONTROL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 23.5 (2013): 507–520. Print.
@article{4170087,
  abstract     = {This study explores the influence of a selection of adjuvants and of three different nozzle sizes on the foliar application of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs). Two EPN species were studied: Steinernema feltiae and Steinernema carpocapsae. A viability test of EPNs suspended in different solutions of adjuvants showed that all selected alcohol ethoxylates and an alkyl polysaccharide have an immobilising effect on the selected nematode species. In a sedimentation test, xanthan gum proved to be the only adjuvant in a broad selection, capable of delaying sedimentation of EPNs in suspension. Without xanthan gum, sedimentation of S. carpocapsae and S. feltiae was noticeable after 20 and 10 minutes, respectively. When xanthan gum (0.3 g/L) was added to the suspension, no signs of sedimentation were noticed after 20 minutes with both EPN species. An ISO 02 flat fan nozzle can clog when spraying S. carpocapsae. A deposition test determined that an ISO 04 standard flat fan nozzle provides a higher relative deposition on cauliflower leaves and is therefore a better nozzle choice than the bigger ISO 08 standard flat fan nozzle for spraying S. carpocapsae. The addition of a spreading agent improved the deposition of S. carpocapsae. Adding xanthan gum to the EPN-spreading agent mixtures did not further improve deposition.},
  author       = {Beck, Bert and Brusselman, Eva and Nuyttens, David and Moens, Maurice and Pollet, S and Temmerman, F and Spanoghe, Pieter},
  issn         = {0958-3157},
  journal      = {BIOCONTROL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {5},
  pages        = {507--520},
  title        = {Improving foliar applications of entomopthogenic nematodes by selecting adjuvants and spray nozzles},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09583157.2013.777692},
  volume       = {23},
  year         = {2013},
}

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