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FPGA-based implementation of the back-EMF symmetric-threshold-tracking sensorless commutation method for brushless DC-machines

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Abstract
The operation of brushless DC permanent-magnet machines requires information of the rotor position to steer the semiconductor switches of the power-supply module which is commonly referred to as Brushless Commutation. Different sensorless techniques have been proposed to estimate the rotor position using current and voltage measurements of the machine. Detection of the back-electromotive force (EMF) zero-crossing moments is one of the methods most used to achieve sensorless control by predicting the commutation moments. Most of the techniques based on this phenomenon have the inherit disadvantage of an indirect detection of commutation moments. This is the result of the commutation moment occurring 30 electrical degrees after the zero-crossing of the induced back-emf in the unexcited phase. Often, the time difference between the zero crossing of the back-emf and the optimal current commutation is assumed constant. This assumption can be valid for steady-state operation, however a varying time difference should be taken into account during transient operation of the BLDC machine. This uncertainty degrades the performance of the drive during transients. To overcome this problem which improves the performance while keeping the simplicity of the back-emf zero-crossing detection method an enhancement is proposed. The proposed sensorless method operates parameterless in a way it uses none of the brushless dc-machine parameters. In this paper different aspects of experimental implementation of the new method as well as various aspects of the FPGA programming are discussed. Proposed control method is implemented within a Xilinx Spartan 3E XC3S500E board.
Keywords
back-EMF zero-crossing, VOLTAGE. Permanent-magnet brushless DC-machine (BLDC-machine), PREDICTIVE CONTROL, field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), sensorless control, MOTOR DRIVE, POSITION

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Chicago
Darba, Araz, Frederik De Belie, Aboubakr Salem Mohamed Salem, and Jan Melkebeek. 2013. “FPGA-based Implementation of the back-EMF Symmetric-threshold-tracking Sensorless Commutation Method for Brushless DC-machines.” In 2013 IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON SENSORLESS CONTROL FOR ELECTRICAL DRIVES AND PREDICTIVE CONTROL OF ELECTRICAL DRIVES AND POWER ELECTRONICS (SLED/PRECEDE), 1–6. IEEE.
APA
Darba, A., De Belie, F., Salem Mohamed Salem, A., & Melkebeek, J. (2013). FPGA-based implementation of the back-EMF symmetric-threshold-tracking sensorless commutation method for brushless DC-machines. 2013 IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON SENSORLESS CONTROL FOR ELECTRICAL DRIVES AND PREDICTIVE CONTROL OF ELECTRICAL DRIVES AND POWER ELECTRONICS (SLED/PRECEDE) (pp. 1–6). Presented at the IEEE International Symposium on Sensorless Control for Electrical Drives and Predictive Control of Electrical Drives and Power Electronics (SLED/PRECEDE), IEEE.
Vancouver
1.
Darba A, De Belie F, Salem Mohamed Salem A, Melkebeek J. FPGA-based implementation of the back-EMF symmetric-threshold-tracking sensorless commutation method for brushless DC-machines. 2013 IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON SENSORLESS CONTROL FOR ELECTRICAL DRIVES AND PREDICTIVE CONTROL OF ELECTRICAL DRIVES AND POWER ELECTRONICS (SLED/PRECEDE). IEEE; 2013. p. 1–6.
MLA
Darba, Araz et al. “FPGA-based Implementation of the back-EMF Symmetric-threshold-tracking Sensorless Commutation Method for Brushless DC-machines.” 2013 IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON SENSORLESS CONTROL FOR ELECTRICAL DRIVES AND PREDICTIVE CONTROL OF ELECTRICAL DRIVES AND POWER ELECTRONICS (SLED/PRECEDE). IEEE, 2013. 1–6. Print.
@inproceedings{4167621,
  abstract     = {The operation of brushless DC permanent-magnet machines requires information of the rotor position to steer the semiconductor switches of the power-supply module which is commonly referred to as Brushless Commutation. Different sensorless techniques have been proposed to estimate the rotor position using current and voltage measurements of the machine. Detection of the back-electromotive force (EMF) zero-crossing moments is one of the methods most used to achieve sensorless control by predicting the commutation moments. Most of the techniques based on this phenomenon have the inherit disadvantage of an indirect detection of commutation moments. This is the result of the commutation moment occurring 30 electrical degrees after the zero-crossing of the induced back-emf in the unexcited phase. Often, the time difference between the zero crossing of the back-emf and the optimal current commutation is assumed constant. This assumption can be valid for steady-state operation, however a varying time difference should be taken into account during transient operation of the BLDC machine. This uncertainty degrades the performance of the drive during transients. To overcome this problem which improves the performance while keeping the simplicity of the back-emf zero-crossing detection method an enhancement is proposed. The proposed sensorless method operates parameterless in a way it uses none of the brushless dc-machine parameters. In this paper different aspects of experimental implementation of the new method as well as various aspects of the FPGA programming are discussed. Proposed control method is implemented within a Xilinx Spartan 3E XC3S500E board.},
  author       = {Darba, Araz and De Belie, Frederik and Salem Mohamed Salem, Aboubakr and Melkebeek, Jan},
  booktitle    = {2013 IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON SENSORLESS CONTROL FOR ELECTRICAL DRIVES AND PREDICTIVE CONTROL OF ELECTRICAL DRIVES AND POWER ELECTRONICS (SLED/PRECEDE)},
  isbn         = {9781479906802},
  keywords     = {back-EMF zero-crossing,VOLTAGE. Permanent-magnet brushless DC-machine (BLDC-machine),PREDICTIVE CONTROL,field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs),sensorless control,MOTOR DRIVE,POSITION},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {Munchen, Germany},
  pages        = {1--6},
  publisher    = {IEEE},
  title        = {FPGA-based implementation of the back-EMF symmetric-threshold-tracking sensorless commutation method for brushless DC-machines},
  year         = {2013},
}

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