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Determinants of self-reported bystander behavior in cyberbullying incidents amongst adolescents

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Abstract
This study explores behavioral determinants of self-reported cyberbullying bystander behavior from a behavioral change theoretical perspective, to provide levers for interventions. Nine focus groups were conducted with 61 young adolescents (aged 12-16 years, 52% girls). Assertive defending, reporting to others, providing advice, and seeking support were the most mentioned behaviors. Self-reported bystander behavior heavily depended on contextual factors, and should not be considered a fixed participant role. Bystanders preferred to handle cyberbullying offline and in person, and comforting the victim was considered more feasible than facing the bully. Most prevailing behavioral determinants to defend or support the victim were low moral disengagement, that the victim is an ingroup member, and that the bystander is popular. Youngsters felt they received little encouragement from their environment to perform positive bystanding behavior, since peers have a high acceptance for not defending and perceived parental support for defending behavior is largely lacking. These results suggest multilevel models for cyberbullying research, and interventions are needed. With much previous research into cyberbullying insufficiently founded in theoretical models, the employed framework of the Integrative Model and Social Cognitive Theory may inspire future studies into bystander behavior.
Keywords
SCHOOL STUDENTS, MORAL DISENGAGEMENT, PEER, CYBER, VICTIMIZATION, INTERVENTIONS, SUPPORT, EMPATHY, ROLES, PREDICTORS

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MLA
DeSmet, Ann, Charlene Veldeman, Karolien Poels, et al. “Determinants of Self-reported Bystander Behavior in Cyberbullying Incidents Amongst Adolescents.” CYBERPSYCHOLOGY BEHAVIOR AND SOCIAL NETWORKING 17.4 (2014): 207–215. Print.
APA
DeSmet, Ann, Veldeman, C., Poels, K., Bastiaensens, S., Van Cleemput, K., Vandenbosch, H., & De Bourdeaudhuij, I. (2014). Determinants of self-reported bystander behavior in cyberbullying incidents amongst adolescents. CYBERPSYCHOLOGY BEHAVIOR AND SOCIAL NETWORKING, 17(4), 207–215.
Chicago author-date
DeSmet, Ann, Charlene Veldeman, Karolien Poels, Sara Bastiaensens, Katrien Van Cleemput, Heidi Vandenbosch, and Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij. 2014. “Determinants of Self-reported Bystander Behavior in Cyberbullying Incidents Amongst Adolescents.” Cyberpsychology Behavior and Social Networking 17 (4): 207–215.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
DeSmet, Ann, Charlene Veldeman, Karolien Poels, Sara Bastiaensens, Katrien Van Cleemput, Heidi Vandenbosch, and Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij. 2014. “Determinants of Self-reported Bystander Behavior in Cyberbullying Incidents Amongst Adolescents.” Cyberpsychology Behavior and Social Networking 17 (4): 207–215.
Vancouver
1.
DeSmet A, Veldeman C, Poels K, Bastiaensens S, Van Cleemput K, Vandenbosch H, et al. Determinants of self-reported bystander behavior in cyberbullying incidents amongst adolescents. CYBERPSYCHOLOGY BEHAVIOR AND SOCIAL NETWORKING. 2014;17(4):207–15.
IEEE
[1]
A. DeSmet et al., “Determinants of self-reported bystander behavior in cyberbullying incidents amongst adolescents,” CYBERPSYCHOLOGY BEHAVIOR AND SOCIAL NETWORKING, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 207–215, 2014.
@article{4164078,
  abstract     = {This study explores behavioral determinants of self-reported cyberbullying bystander behavior from a behavioral change theoretical perspective, to provide levers for interventions. Nine focus groups were conducted with 61 young adolescents (aged 12-16 years, 52% girls). Assertive defending, reporting to others, providing advice, and seeking support were the most mentioned behaviors. Self-reported bystander behavior heavily depended on contextual factors, and should not be considered a fixed participant role. Bystanders preferred to handle cyberbullying offline and in person, and comforting the victim was considered more feasible than facing the bully. Most prevailing behavioral determinants to defend or support the victim were low moral disengagement, that the victim is an ingroup member, and that the bystander is popular. Youngsters felt they received little encouragement from their environment to perform positive bystanding behavior, since peers have a high acceptance for not defending and perceived parental support for defending behavior is largely lacking. These results suggest multilevel models for cyberbullying research, and interventions are needed. With much previous research into cyberbullying insufficiently founded in theoretical models, the employed framework of the Integrative Model and Social Cognitive Theory may inspire future studies into bystander behavior.},
  author       = {DeSmet, Ann and Veldeman, Charlene and Poels, Karolien and Bastiaensens, Sara and Van Cleemput, Katrien and Vandenbosch, Heidi and De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse},
  issn         = {2152-2715},
  journal      = {CYBERPSYCHOLOGY BEHAVIOR AND SOCIAL NETWORKING},
  keywords     = {SCHOOL STUDENTS,MORAL DISENGAGEMENT,PEER,CYBER,VICTIMIZATION,INTERVENTIONS,SUPPORT,EMPATHY,ROLES,PREDICTORS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {207--215},
  title        = {Determinants of self-reported bystander behavior in cyberbullying incidents amongst adolescents},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2013.0027},
  volume       = {17},
  year         = {2014},
}

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