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The toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) pathway and its possible role in the pathogenesis of Escherichia coli mastitis in dairy cattle

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Abstract
Mastitis is one of the most costly production diseases in the dairy industry that is caused by a wide array of microorganisms. In this review, we focus on the Gram-negative Escherichia coli infections that often occur at periods when the innate immune defence mechanisms are impaired (i.e., parturition through the first 60 days of lactation). There is substantial evidence demonstrating that at these periods, the expected influx of polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMN) into the mammary gland is delayed during inflammation after intramammary infection with E. coli. Here, we provide some hypotheses on the potential mechanisms of action on how the disease may develop under circumstances of immunosuppression, and describe the potential involvement of the toll-like receptor-4 signal transduction pathway in the pathogenesis of E. coli mastitis. In addition, some ideas are proposed to help prevent E. coli mastitis and potentially other diseases caused by Gram-negative infections in general.
Keywords
INNATE IMMUNE-RESPONSES, GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA, INTESTINAL EPITHELIAL-CELLS, PATTERN-RECOGNITION RECEPTOR, TUMOR-NECROSIS-FACTOR, NF-KAPPA-B, TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR-4, CD14, TLR-4, E. coli mastitis, LPS-BINDING PROTEIN, SOLUBLE CD14, INTRAMAMMARY INFECTION

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Chicago
De Schepper, Stefanie, Adelheid De Ketelaere, Douglas D Bannerman, Max Paape, Luc Peelman, and Christian Burvenich. 2008. β€œThe Toll-like Receptor-4 (TLR-4) Pathway and Its Possible Role in the Pathogenesis of Escherichia Coli Mastitis in Dairy Cattle.” Veterinary Research 39 (1).
APA
De Schepper, Stefanie, De Ketelaere, A., Bannerman, D. D., Paape, M., Peelman, L., & Burvenich, C. (2008). The toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) pathway and its possible role in the pathogenesis of Escherichia coli mastitis in dairy cattle. VETERINARY RESEARCH, 39(1).
Vancouver
1.
De Schepper S, De Ketelaere A, Bannerman DD, Paape M, Peelman L, Burvenich C. The toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) pathway and its possible role in the pathogenesis of Escherichia coli mastitis in dairy cattle. VETERINARY RESEARCH. 2008;39(1).
MLA
De Schepper, Stefanie, Adelheid De Ketelaere, Douglas D Bannerman, et al. β€œThe Toll-like Receptor-4 (TLR-4) Pathway and Its Possible Role in the Pathogenesis of Escherichia Coli Mastitis in Dairy Cattle.” VETERINARY RESEARCH 39.1 (2008): n. pag. Print.
@article{416396,
  abstract     = {Mastitis is one of the most costly production diseases in the dairy industry that is caused by a wide array of microorganisms. In this review, we focus on the Gram-negative Escherichia coli infections that often occur at periods when the innate immune defence mechanisms are impaired (i.e., parturition through the first 60 days of lactation). There is substantial evidence demonstrating that at these periods, the expected influx of polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMN) into the mammary gland is delayed during inflammation after intramammary infection with E. coli. Here, we provide some hypotheses on the potential mechanisms of action on how the disease may develop under circumstances of immunosuppression, and describe the potential involvement of the toll-like receptor-4 signal transduction pathway in the pathogenesis of E. coli mastitis. In addition, some ideas are proposed to help prevent E. coli mastitis and potentially other diseases caused by Gram-negative infections in general.},
  author       = {De Schepper, Stefanie and De Ketelaere, Adelheid and Bannerman, Douglas D and Paape, Max and Peelman, Luc and Burvenich, Christian},
  issn         = {0928-4249},
  journal      = {VETERINARY RESEARCH},
  keyword      = {INNATE IMMUNE-RESPONSES,GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA,INTESTINAL EPITHELIAL-CELLS,PATTERN-RECOGNITION RECEPTOR,TUMOR-NECROSIS-FACTOR,NF-KAPPA-B,TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR-4,CD14,TLR-4,E. coli mastitis,LPS-BINDING PROTEIN,SOLUBLE CD14,INTRAMAMMARY INFECTION},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  title        = {The toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) pathway and its possible role in the pathogenesis of Escherichia coli mastitis in dairy cattle},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/vetres:2007044},
  volume       = {39},
  year         = {2008},
}

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