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Intake and dietary sources of haem and non-haem iron among European adolescents and their association with iron status and different lifestyle and socio-economic factors

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Abstract
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Adolescents are at risk of iron deficiency because of their high iron requirements. The aims of this study were: (1) to assess iron intake, its determinants and its most important food sources and; (2) to evaluate the relation of iron intake and status in European adolescents. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Two non-consecutive 24-h recalls were completed by a computerised tool. The socio-demographic and socio-economic data were collected by a self-reported questionnaire. Weight and height were measured. A distinction was made between haem and non-haem iron. RESULTS: The total iron intake was significantly higher among boys (13.8 mg/day; n = 1077) than girls (11.0 mg/day; n = 1253). About 97.3% of the boys and 87.8% of the girls met the estimated average requirement, and 72.4% of the boys and 13.7% of the girls met the recommendation for bio-available iron intake. The ratio of haem/non-haem iron intake was lower for girls than boys. Meat (19.2; 76%) and bread and rolls (12.6;3.9%) contributed most to total and haem iron intake. Bread and rolls (13.8%) and meat (10.8%) contributed most to non-haem iron intake. Age, sex and body mass index were associated with iron intake. Only red blood cell concentration was significantly negatively associated with total, haem and non-haem iron intake. CONCLUSION: Girls had lower iron intakes and ratio of haem/non-haem iron intake than boys. The main total iron and haem iron source was meat, while the main non-haem iron source was bread and rolls. Adolescent girls may be a group at risk for iron deficiency. Consequently, special attention and strategies are needed in order to improve iron intakes during adolescence.
Keywords
SUPPLEMENT USE, PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY, QUALITY-ASSURANCE, TRANSFERRIN RECEPTOR, FOOD-INTAKE, dietary sources, adolescents, iron intake, iron status, ABSORPTION, HELENA, POPULATION, NUTRITION, VITAMIN

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Chicago
Vandevijvere, S, Nathalie Michels, S Verstraete, M Ferrari, C Leclercq, M Cuenca-García, Evangelia Grammatikaki, et al. 2013. “Intake and Dietary Sources of Haem and Non-haem Iron Among European Adolescents and Their Association with Iron Status and Different Lifestyle and Socio-economic Factors.” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 67 (7): 765–772.
APA
Vandevijvere, S, Michels, N., Verstraete, S., Ferrari, M., Leclercq, C., Cuenca-García, M., Grammatikaki, E., et al. (2013). Intake and dietary sources of haem and non-haem iron among European adolescents and their association with iron status and different lifestyle and socio-economic factors. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION, 67(7), 765–772.
Vancouver
1.
Vandevijvere S, Michels N, Verstraete S, Ferrari M, Leclercq C, Cuenca-García M, et al. Intake and dietary sources of haem and non-haem iron among European adolescents and their association with iron status and different lifestyle and socio-economic factors. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION. 2013;67(7):765–72.
MLA
Vandevijvere, S, Nathalie Michels, S Verstraete, et al. “Intake and Dietary Sources of Haem and Non-haem Iron Among European Adolescents and Their Association with Iron Status and Different Lifestyle and Socio-economic Factors.” EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION 67.7 (2013): 765–772. Print.
@article{4132482,
  abstract     = {BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Adolescents are at risk of iron deficiency because of their high iron requirements. The aims of this study were: (1) to assess iron intake, its determinants and its most important food sources and; (2) to evaluate the relation of iron intake and status in European adolescents.
SUBJECTS/METHODS: Two non-consecutive 24-h recalls were completed by a computerised tool. The socio-demographic and socio-economic data were collected by a self-reported questionnaire. Weight and height were measured. A distinction was made between haem and non-haem iron.
RESULTS: The total iron intake was significantly higher among boys (13.8 mg/day; n = 1077) than girls (11.0 mg/day; n = 1253). About 97.3\% of the boys and 87.8\% of the girls met the estimated average requirement, and 72.4\% of the boys and 13.7\% of the girls met the recommendation for bio-available iron intake. The ratio of haem/non-haem iron intake was lower for girls than boys. Meat (19.2; 76\%) and bread and rolls (12.6;3.9\%) contributed most to total and haem iron intake. Bread and rolls (13.8\%) and meat (10.8\%) contributed most to non-haem iron intake. Age, sex and body mass index were associated with iron intake. Only red blood cell concentration was significantly negatively associated with total, haem and non-haem iron intake.
CONCLUSION: Girls had lower iron intakes and ratio of haem/non-haem iron intake than boys. The main total iron and haem iron source was meat, while the main non-haem iron source was bread and rolls. Adolescent girls may be a group at risk for iron deficiency. Consequently, special attention and strategies are needed in order to improve iron intakes during adolescence.},
  author       = {Vandevijvere, S and Michels, Nathalie and Verstraete, S and Ferrari, M and Leclercq, C and Cuenca-Garc{\'i}a, M and Grammatikaki, Evangelia and Manios, Y and Gottrand, F and Santamar{\'i}a, JV and Kersting, M and Gonzalez-Gross, M and Moreno, L and Mouratidou, T and Stevens, K and Meirhaeghen, A and Dallongeville, J and Sj{\"o}str{\"o}m, M and Hallstrom, L and Kafatos, A and Widhalm, K and Molnar, D and De Henauw, Stefaan and Huybrechts, Inge},
  issn         = {0954-3007},
  journal      = {EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {7},
  pages        = {765--772},
  title        = {Intake and dietary sources of haem and non-haem iron among European adolescents and their association with iron status and different lifestyle and socio-economic factors},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2013.100},
  volume       = {67},
  year         = {2013},
}

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