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Magnesium-enhanced enzymatically mineralized platelet-rich fibrin for bone regeneration applications

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Abstract
Membranes of the autologous blood-derived biomaterial platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) were mineralized enzymatically with calcium phosphate (CaP) by the incorporation of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) followed by incubation for 3 days in solutions of either 0.1 M calcium glycerophosphate (CaGP) or a combination of CaGP and magnesium glycerophosphate (CaGP:MgGP; both 0.05 M), resulting in the formation of two different PRF-mineral composites. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction examinations showed that the CaP formed was amorphous. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy analysis revealed similar amounts of Ca and P in both composite types, while a smaller amount of Mg (Ca:Mg molar ratio = 10) was detected in the composites formed in the CaGP:MgGP solution, which was supported by the results of energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy-based elemental mapping. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging showed that the mineral deposits in PRF incubated in the CaGP:MgGP solution were markedly smaller. The mass percentage attributable to the mineral phase was similar in both composite types. MTT and WST tests with SAOS-2 cells revealed that incubation in the CaGP:MgGP solution had no negative effect on cytocompatibility and cell proliferation compared to the CaGP solution. Cells on all samples displayed a well-spread morphology as revealed by SEM imaging. In conclusion, the incorporation of Mg reduces mineral deposit dimensions and promotes cell proliferation.
Keywords
ALKALINE-PHOSPHATASE, OSTEOBLAST ADHESION, NANOPHASE CERAMICS, CALCIUM-PHOSPHATE, DIFFERENTIATION, PROLIFERATION, SCAFFOLDS, COMPOSITE, PRF, IN-VITRO

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MLA
Gassling, Volker, et al. “Magnesium-Enhanced Enzymatically Mineralized Platelet-Rich Fibrin for Bone Regeneration Applications.” BIOMEDICAL MATERIALS, vol. 8, no. 5, 2013.
APA
Gassling, V., Douglas, T., Purcz, N., Schaubroeck, D., Balcaen, L., Bliznuk, V., … Dubruel, P. (2013). Magnesium-enhanced enzymatically mineralized platelet-rich fibrin for bone regeneration applications. BIOMEDICAL MATERIALS, 8(5).
Chicago author-date
Gassling, Volker, Timothy Douglas, Nicolai Purcz, David Schaubroeck, Lieve Balcaen, Vitaliy Bliznuk, Heidi Declercq, Frank Vanhaecke, and Peter Dubruel. 2013. “Magnesium-Enhanced Enzymatically Mineralized Platelet-Rich Fibrin for Bone Regeneration Applications.” BIOMEDICAL MATERIALS 8 (5).
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Gassling, Volker, Timothy Douglas, Nicolai Purcz, David Schaubroeck, Lieve Balcaen, Vitaliy Bliznuk, Heidi Declercq, Frank Vanhaecke, and Peter Dubruel. 2013. “Magnesium-Enhanced Enzymatically Mineralized Platelet-Rich Fibrin for Bone Regeneration Applications.” BIOMEDICAL MATERIALS 8 (5).
Vancouver
1.
Gassling V, Douglas T, Purcz N, Schaubroeck D, Balcaen L, Bliznuk V, et al. Magnesium-enhanced enzymatically mineralized platelet-rich fibrin for bone regeneration applications. BIOMEDICAL MATERIALS. 2013;8(5).
IEEE
[1]
V. Gassling et al., “Magnesium-enhanced enzymatically mineralized platelet-rich fibrin for bone regeneration applications,” BIOMEDICAL MATERIALS, vol. 8, no. 5, 2013.
@article{4121004,
  abstract     = {Membranes of the autologous blood-derived biomaterial platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) were mineralized enzymatically with calcium phosphate (CaP) by the incorporation of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) followed by incubation for 3 days in solutions of either 0.1 M calcium glycerophosphate (CaGP) or a combination of CaGP and magnesium glycerophosphate (CaGP:MgGP; both 0.05 M), resulting in the formation of two different PRF-mineral composites. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction examinations showed that the CaP formed was amorphous. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy analysis revealed similar amounts of Ca and P in both composite types, while a smaller amount of Mg (Ca:Mg molar ratio = 10) was detected in the composites formed in the CaGP:MgGP solution, which was supported by the results of energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy-based elemental mapping. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging showed that the mineral deposits in PRF incubated in the CaGP:MgGP solution were markedly smaller. The mass percentage attributable to the mineral phase was similar in both composite types. MTT and WST tests with SAOS-2 cells revealed that incubation in the CaGP:MgGP solution had no negative effect on cytocompatibility and cell proliferation compared to the CaGP solution. Cells on all samples displayed a well-spread morphology as revealed by SEM imaging. In conclusion, the incorporation of Mg reduces mineral deposit dimensions and promotes cell proliferation.},
  articleno    = {055001},
  author       = {Gassling, Volker and Douglas, Timothy and Purcz, Nicolai and Schaubroeck, David and Balcaen, Lieve and Bliznuk, Vitaliy and Declercq, Heidi and Vanhaecke, Frank and Dubruel, Peter},
  issn         = {1748-6041},
  journal      = {BIOMEDICAL MATERIALS},
  keywords     = {ALKALINE-PHOSPHATASE,OSTEOBLAST ADHESION,NANOPHASE CERAMICS,CALCIUM-PHOSPHATE,DIFFERENTIATION,PROLIFERATION,SCAFFOLDS,COMPOSITE,PRF,IN-VITRO},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {5},
  pages        = {10},
  title        = {Magnesium-enhanced enzymatically mineralized platelet-rich fibrin for bone regeneration applications},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1748-6041/8/5/055001},
  volume       = {8},
  year         = {2013},
}

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