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Abstract
We report above-ground biomass (AGB), basal area, stem density and wood mass density estimates from 260 sample plots (mean size: 1.2 ha) in intact closed-canopy tropical forests across 12 African countries. Mean AGB is 395.7 Mg dry mass ha(-1) (95% CI: 14.3), substantially higher than Amazonian values, with the Congo Basin and contiguous forest region attaining AGB values (429 Mg ha(-1)) similar to those of Bornean forests, and significantly greater than East or West African forests. AGB therefore appears generally higher in palaeo-compared with neotropical forests. However, mean stem density is low(426 +/- 11 stems ha(-1) greater than or equal to 100 mm diameter) compared with both Amazonian and Bornean forests (cf. approx. 600) and is the signature structural feature of African tropical forests. While spatial autocorrelation complicates analyses, AGB shows a positive relationship with rainfall in the driest nine months of the year, and an opposite association with the wettest three months of the year; a negative relationship with temperature; positive relationship with clay-rich soils; and negative relationships with C : Nratio (suggesting a positive soil phosphorus-AGB relationship), and soil fertility computed as the sum of base cations. The results indicate that AGB is mediated by both climate and soils, and suggest that the AGB of African closed-canopy tropical forests may be particularly sensitive to future precipitation and temperature changes.
Keywords
SENSITIVITY, SOILS, GROWTH, RAIN-FOREST, CARBON STOCKS, CLIMATE-CHANGE, TREE ALLOMETRY, AMAZONIAN FORESTS, WOOD DENSITY, SPATIAL-PATTERNS, west Africa, east Africa, Congo Basin, wood density, soil, climate

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Chicago
Lewis, Simon L, Bonaventure Sonké, Terry Sunderland, Serge K Begne, Gabriela Lopez-Gonzalez, Geertje MF van der Heijden, Oliver L Phillips, et al. 2013. “Above-ground Biomass and Structure of 260 African Tropical Forests.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-biological Sciences 368 (1625).
APA
Lewis, S. L., Sonké, B., Sunderland, T., Begne, S. K., Lopez-Gonzalez, G., van der Heijden, G. M., Phillips, O. L., et al. (2013). Above-ground biomass and structure of 260 African tropical forests. PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, 368(1625).
Vancouver
1.
Lewis SL, Sonké B, Sunderland T, Begne SK, Lopez-Gonzalez G, van der Heijden GM, et al. Above-ground biomass and structure of 260 African tropical forests. PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 2013;368(1625).
MLA
Lewis, Simon L, Bonaventure Sonké, Terry Sunderland, et al. “Above-ground Biomass and Structure of 260 African Tropical Forests.” PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 368.1625 (2013): n. pag. Print.
@article{4117735,
  abstract     = {We report above-ground biomass (AGB), basal area, stem density and wood mass density estimates from 260 sample plots (mean size: 1.2 ha) in intact closed-canopy tropical forests across 12 African countries. Mean AGB is 395.7 Mg dry mass ha(-1) (95\% CI: 14.3), substantially higher than Amazonian values, with the Congo Basin and contiguous forest region attaining AGB values (429 Mg ha(-1)) similar to those of Bornean forests, and significantly greater than East or West African forests. AGB therefore appears generally higher in palaeo-compared with neotropical forests. However, mean stem density is low(426 +/- 11 stems ha(-1) greater than or equal to 100 mm diameter) compared with both Amazonian and Bornean forests (cf. approx. 600) and is the signature structural feature of African tropical forests. While spatial autocorrelation complicates analyses, AGB shows a positive relationship with rainfall in the driest nine months of the year, and an opposite association with the wettest three months of the year; a negative relationship with temperature; positive relationship with clay-rich soils; and negative relationships with C : Nratio (suggesting a positive soil phosphorus-AGB relationship), and soil fertility computed as the sum of base cations. The results indicate that AGB is mediated by both climate and soils, and suggest that the AGB of African closed-canopy tropical forests may be particularly sensitive to future precipitation and temperature changes.},
  articleno    = {20120295},
  author       = {Lewis, Simon L and Sonk{\'e}, Bonaventure and Sunderland, Terry and Begne, Serge K and Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela and van der Heijden, Geertje MF and Phillips, Oliver L and Affum-Baffoe, Kofi and Baker, Timothy R and Banin, Lindsay and Bastin, Jean-Fran\c{c}ois and Beeckman, Hans and Boeckx, Pascal and Bogaert, Jan and De Canni{\`e}re, Charles and Chezeaux, Eric and Clark, Connie J and Collins, Murray and Djagbletey, Gloria and Djuikouo, Marie No{\"e}l K and Droissart, Vincent and Doucet, Jean-Louis and Ewango, Cornielle EN and Fauset, Sophie and Feldpausch, Ted R and Foli, Ernest G and Gillet, Jean-Fran\c{c}ois and Hamilton, Alan C and Harris, David J and Hart, Terese B and de Haulleville, Thales and Hladik, Annette and Hufkens, Koen and Huygens, Dries and Jeanmart, Philippe and Jeffery, Kathryn J and Kearsley, Elizabeth and Leal, Miguel E and Lloyd, Jon and Lovett, Jon C and Makana, Jean-Remy and Malhi, Yadvinder and Marshall, Andrew R and Ojo, Lucas and Peh, Kelvin S-H and Pickavance, Georgia and Poulsen, John R and Reitsma, Jan M and Sheil, Douglas and Simo, Murielle and Steppe, Kathy and Taedoumg, Hermann E and Talbot, Joey and Taplin, James RD and Taylor, David and Thomas, Sean C and Toirambe, Benjamin and Verbeeck, Hans and Vleminckx, Jason and White, Lee JT and Willcock, Simon and Woell, Hannsjorg and Zemagho, Lise},
  issn         = {0962-8436},
  journal      = {PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES},
  keyword      = {SENSITIVITY,SOILS,GROWTH,RAIN-FOREST,CARBON STOCKS,CLIMATE-CHANGE,TREE ALLOMETRY,AMAZONIAN FORESTS,WOOD DENSITY,SPATIAL-PATTERNS,west Africa,east Africa,Congo Basin,wood density,soil,climate},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1625},
  pages        = {14},
  title        = {Above-ground biomass and structure of 260 African tropical forests},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2012.0295},
  volume       = {368},
  year         = {2013},
}

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